Did the Sun stand still in Joshua 10:13-14? By Jack Kettler
“Then spake Joshua to JEHOVAH in the day when JEHOVAH delivered up the Amorites before the children of Israel, and he said in the sight of Israel, Sun, stand thou still upon Gibeon; and thou, Moon, in the valley of Ajalon. And the sun stood still, and the moon stayed, until the people had avenged themselves upon their enemies. Is not this written in the book of Jasher? So the sun stood still in the midst of heaven, and hasted not to go down about a whole day. And there was no day like that before it or after it that JEHOVAH hearkened unto the voice of a man: for JEHOVAH fought for Israel.” (Joshua 10:12-14)
What does this passage mean? Is it literal? If so, is modern cosmology wrong? This study is not for one easily offended or governed by emotions. The purpose is to challenge prevailing theories.
John Calvin on Joshua 10:13:
“13. And the sun stood still, etc. The question how the sun stood in Gibeon, is no less unseasonably raised by some than unskillfully explained by others. For Joshua did not subtlety place the sun in any particular point, making it necessary to feign that the battle was fought at the summer solstice, but as it was turning towards the district of Ajalon as far as the eye could discern, Joshua bids it stay and rest there, in other words, remain above what is called the horizon. In short, the sun, which was already declining to the west, is kept from setting.
I do not give myself any great anxiety as to the number of the hours; because it is enough for me that the day was continued through the whole night. Were histories of that period extant, they would doubtless celebrate this great miracle; lest its credibility, however, should be questioned, the writer of this book mentions that an account of it was given elsewhere, though the work which he quotes has been lost, and expounders are not well agreed as to the term Jazar. Those who think Moses is meant, insist on referring the example, which is here given to general predictions. As Moses applies this name to the chosen people, it is more congruous to hold that commentaries on the events in their history are meant. I, for my part, understand by it either God or Israel, rather than the author of a history.”
- And there was no day like that, etc. We read in Isaiah and in the Sacred History, that the course of the sun was afterwards changed as a favor to King Hezekiah. (Isaiah 38:5-8) For to assure him that his life was still to be prolonged fifteen years, the shadow of the sun was carried back over ten degrees on which it had gone down. It is not, therefore, absolutely denied that anything similar had ever been conceded to any other person, but the miracle is extolled as singular. The rendering of the word sm, by obeyed, as adopted by some, I reject as too harsh. For although it is said in the Psalm, that the Lord does according to the desire of his servants, which may be held to be equivalent to obeying, it is better to avoid anything which seems to give a subordinate office to God. Simply, therefore, the excellence of the miracle is praised, as nothing like it had been seen before or had happened after. The second clause of the verse celebrates the kindness and condescension of God in hearing Joshua, as well as his paternal favor towards the people, for whom he is said to have fought.” (1)
There is nothing in Calvin’s comments that indicates he did not take the passage as anything but literal. The cosmology in Calvin’s time was different from modern cosmology. The modern commentator has to import a different cosmology and try to reinterpret the text accordingly.
There are verses that refer to the Sun as rising and setting every day while not one verse that ever refers to the Earth as moving. Has modern cosmology become an interpretive grid imposed upon biblical cosmology?
As we look at the following passages, are they nothing more than figures of speech? In the following survey of Scriptures, there are examples of historical, poetical, and didactic genera’s of literature. An interpreter needs to be aware of the rules for different genera. If, for example, the following list of Scriptures were all-poetical, it would be easier to say that figures of speech account for what is seen. However, three genera’s are covered, making it problematic for a speech figure to be a solution to all the passages.
The following passages have a literal way to interpret them. If they are purely figurative, what insights does the reader gain for not taking them as literal? How would one rephrase these Scriptures to represent heliocentric cosmological truth? Why would God not solve the problem of interpretation by using a heliocentric model? If cosmology is geocentric, there is no problem in not taking the passages as anything but literal.
A small sampling of Scriptures relevant to Joshua 10:12-14:
“The sun was risen upon the earth when Lot entered into Zoar.” (Genesis 19:23)
“But Moses’ hands were heavy; and they took a stone, and put it under him, and he sat thereon; and Aaron and Hur stayed up his hands, the one on the one side, and the other on the other side; and his hands were steady until the going down of the sun.” (Exodus 17:12)
“And when the sun is down, he shall be clean, and shall afterward eat of the holy things; because it is his food.” (Leviticus 22:7)
“And on the east side toward the rising of the sun shall they of the standard of the camp of Judah pitch throughout their armies: and Nahshon the son of Amminadab shall be captain of the children of Judah.” (Numbers 2:3)
“Then Moses severed three cities on this side Jordan toward the sunrising.” (Deuteronomy 4:41)
“And the men of the city said unto him on the seventh day before the sun went down, what is sweeter than honey? And what is stronger than a lion? And he said unto them, if ye had not plowed with my heifer, ye had not found out my riddle.” (Judges 14:18)
“And when all the people came to cause David to eat meat while it was yet day, David sware, saying, so do God to me, and more also, if I taste bread, or ought else, till the sun be down.” (2 Samuel 3:35)
“And there went a proclamation throughout the host about the going down of the sun, saying, every man to his city, and every man to his own country.” (1 Kings 22:36)
“And Hezekiah answered, it is a light thing for the shadow to go down ten degrees: nay, but let the shadow return backward ten degrees.” (2 Kings 20:10)
“So we laboured in the work: and half of them held the spears from the rising of the morning till the stars appeared.” (Nehemiah 4:21)
“He can command the sun not to rise.” (Job 9:7)
“The sun also ariseth, and the sun goeth down, and hasteth to his place where he arose.” (Ecclesiastes 1:5)
“A Psalm of Asaph. The mighty God, even the LORD, hath spoken, and called the earth from the rising of the sun unto the going down thereof.” (Psalm 50:1)
“For the stars of heaven and the constellations thereof shall not give their light: the sun shall be darkened in his going forth, and the moon shall not cause her light to shine.” (Isaiah 13:10)
“Behold, I will bring again the shadow of the degrees, which is gone down in the sun dial of Ahaz, ten degrees backward. So the sun returned ten degrees, by which degrees it was gone down.” (Isaiah 38:8)
“So shall they fear the name of the LORD from the west, and his glory from the rising of the sun. When the enemy shall come in like a flood, the Spirit of the LORD shall lift up a standard against him.” (Isaiah 59:19)
“She that hath borne seven languisheth: she hath given up the ghost; her sun is gone down while it was yet day: she hath been ashamed and confounded: and the residue of them will I deliver to the sword before their enemies, saith the LORD.” (Jeremiah 15:9)
“And it shall come to pass in that day, saith the Lord GOD, that I will cause the sun to go down at noon, and I will darken the earth in the clear day.” (Amos 8:9)
“And it came to pass, when the sun did arise, that God prepared a vehement east wind; and the sun beat upon the head of Jonah, that he fainted, and wished in himself to die, and said, it is better for me to die than to live.” (Jonah 4:8)
“Therefore night shall be unto you, that ye shall not have a vision; and it shall be dark unto you, that ye shall not divine; and the sun shall go down over the prophets, and the day shall be dark over them.” (Micah 3:6)
“Thy crowned are as the locusts, and thy captains as the great grasshoppers, which camp in the hedges in the cold day, but when the sun ariseth they flee away, and their place is not known where they are.” (Nahum 3:17)
“The sun and moon stood still in their habitation: at the light of thine arrows they went, and at the shining of thy glittering spear.” (Habakkuk 3:11)
“For from the rising of the sun even unto the going down of the same my name shall be great among the Gentiles; and in every place incense shall be offered unto my name, and a pure offering: for my name shall be great among the heathen, saith the LORD of hosts.” (Malachi 1:11)
“That ye may be the children of your Father which is in heaven: for He maketh his sun to rise on the evil and on the good, and sendeth rain on the just and on the unjust.” (Matthew 5:45)
“And at even, when the sun did set, they brought unto him all that were diseased, and them that were possessed with devils.” (Mark 1:32)
“Now when the sun was setting, all they that had any sick with divers diseases brought them unto him; and he laid his hands on every one of them, and healed them.” (Luke 4:40)
“Be ye angry, and sin not: let not the sun go down upon your wrath.” (Ephesians 4:26)
“For the sun is no sooner risen with a burning heat, but it withereth the grass, and the flower thereof falleth, and the grace of the fashion of it perisheth: so also shall the rich man fade away in his ways.” (James 1:11)
A small sampling of theologians relevant Joshua 10:12-14:
“Let not the philosophers, then, think to upset our faith with arguments from the weight of bodies; for I don’t care to inquire why they cannot believe an earthly body can be in heaven, while the whole earth is suspended on nothing. For perhaps the world keeps its central place by the same law that attracts to its center all heavy bodies.” (2)
“For an eclipse of the sun had also happened; and this was attributed to the divine power of Romulus by the ignorant multitude, who did not know that it was brought about by the fixed laws of the sun’s course.” (3)
“This he said either of those things of which he had just been speaking–the succession of generations, the orbit of the sun, the course of rivers, –or else of all kinds of creatures that are born and die.” (4)
“What is there so arranged by the Author of the nature of heaven and earth as the exactly ordered course of the stars? What is there established by laws so sure and inflexible? And yet, when it pleased Him who with sovereignty and supreme power regulates all He has created, a star conspicuous among the rest by its size and splendor changed its color, size, form, and, most wonderful of all, the order and law of its course! Certainly that phenomenon disturbed the canons of the astronomers, if there were any then, by which they tabulate, as by unerring computation, the past and future movements of the stars, so as to take upon them to affirm that this which happened to the morning star (Venus) never happened before nor since. But we read in the divine books that even the sun itself stood still when a holy man, Joshua the son of Nun, had begged this from God until victory should finish the battle he had begun; and that it even went back, that the promise of fifteen years added to the life of king Hezekiah might be sealed by this additional prodigy. But these miracles, which were vouchsafed to the merits of holy men, even when our adversaries believe them, they attribute to magical arts; so Virgil, in the lines I quoted above, ascribes to magic the power to “Turn rivers backward to their source, and make the stars forget their course.” (5)
“For He not only made it, but provided also that when it was made, it should carry on its operations; not permitting it to be all immoveable, nor commanding it to be all in a state of motion. The heaven, for instance, hath remained immoveable, according as the prophet says, “He placed the heaven as a vault, and stretched it out as a tent over the earth.” But, on the other hand, the sun with the rest of the stars, runs on his course through every day. And again, the earth is fixed, but the waters are continually in motion; and not the waters only, but the clouds, and the frequent and successive showers, which return at their proper season.” (6)
“The heavens revolve daily, and, immense as is their fabric and inconceivable the rapidity of their revolutions, we experience no concussion — no disturbance in the harmony of their motion. The sun, though varying its course every diurnal revolution, returns annually to the same point. The planets, in all their wanderings, maintain their respective positions. How could the earth hang suspended in the air were it not upheld by God’s hand? By what means could it maintain itself unmoved, while the heavens above are in constant rapid motion, did not its Divine Maker fix and establish it?” (7)
God “laid the foundations of the earth, that it should not be removed, forever” (Psalm 104:5). “Here the prophet celebrates the glory of God, as manifested in the stability of the earth. Since it is suspended in the midst of the air, and is supported only by pillars of water, how does it keep its place so stedfastly that it cannot be moved? This I indeed grant may be explained on natural principles; for the earth, as it occupies the lowest place, being the center of the world, naturally settles down there.” (8)
“I beseech you to tell me what the foundation of the earth is. It is founded both upon the water and also upon the air: behold its foundation. We cannot possibly build a house fifteen feet high on firm ground without having to lay a foundation. Behold the whole earth founded only in trembling, indeed poised above such bottomless depths that it might be turned upside down at any minute to become disordered. Hence there must be a wonderful power of God to keep it in the condition in which it is.” (9)
“Luther called Copernicus an upstart astronomer and referred to him as a fool who wishes to reverse the entire science of astronomy; but sacred Scripture tells us that Joshua commanded the sun to stand still, and not the earth.
Scripture simply says that the moon, the sun, and the stars were placed in the firmament of the heaven, below and above which heaven are the waters… It is likely that the stars are fastened to the firmament like globes of fire, to shed light at night… We Christians must be different from the philosophers in the way we think about the causes of things. And if some are beyond our comprehension like those before us concerning the waters above the heavens, we must believe them rather than wickedly deny them or presumptuously interpret them in conformity with our understanding.” (10)
“People gave ear to an upstart astrologer who strove to show that the earth revolves, not the heavens or the firmament, the sun and the moon. Whoever wishes to appear clever must devise some new system, which of all systems is of course the very best. This fool [or ‘man’] wishes to reverse the entire science of astronomy; but sacred Scripture tells us that Joshua commanded the sun to stand still, and not the earth.” (11)
“Eccl. 1:5: “The sun is in perpetual motion, sometimes arising, and sometimes setting, and then arising again, and so constantly repeating its course in all succeeding days, and years, and ages; and the like he observes concerning the winds and rivers, ver. 6,7.” (12)
“Ps. 19: “The visible heavens are thus a revelation of God, the sun bringing by His circlings successive day and night in turn.” (13)
“Writing on Joshua 10:13, John Gill said, ‘How this is to be reconciled with the Copernican system or that with this, I shall not inquire.’ Wise man not to pretend to understand what has not been divinely revealed. Wiser still in refusing to allow the theorizing’s of a Prussian astronomer to cast doubt on what He has made known, or to suggest an interpretation which ‘harmonizes’ the same with the hypothesis of ‘science falsely so called’ (1 Timothy 6:20).” (14)
The geocentric model is a description of the Universe with Earth at the center. Under the geocentric model, the Sun, Moon, stars, and planets all orbited Earth. – Wikipedia
Heliocentrism is the astronomical model in which the Earth and planets revolve around the Sun at the center of the Solar System. Historically, heliocentrism was opposed to geocentrism, which placed the Earth at the center. – Wikipedia
What triggered the literal interpretation of the above verses to change to non-literal interpretation? Could scientific and social acceptability be a factor?
For example, when the scientific community accepted the theory of evolution, many Bible teachers accommodated this theory and adjusted their Bible interpretation to find social acceptance. Did this same type of accommodation happen in the area of cosmology?
Is the Bible without error in all that it teaches? In the above verses regarding the Sun and Stars moving and the Earth not moving. Is God using human language in such a way to accommodate how humans, in their limited understanding, understood the creation? If so, why would God not correct human misunderstanding and set forth the heliocentric view if it is correct? If the Holy Spirit moved the writers of Scripture when they wrote the Word of God, why would God allow them to write false or misleading information to accommodate human ignorance?
The preponderance of the totality of Scripture sets forth a geocentric cosmology along with the Earth being the center of God’s creation. Was it an accommodation to science that led to a reinterpretation of the above Scriptures? The learned doctors of the Church cited above understood poetic literature and rules for its particular genera of allowing for the use of figurative language.
In addition, geocentrists would ask, “How deceptive of God to speak in such a manner unless He meant what he said.” Calvin and others got their understanding of the simple reading of Scripture. Are the Scriptures in error? Since Calvin and other church leaders got their understanding of the Sun moving and the Earth stationary from the Bible, was God teaching falsehood? Were Calvin and Luther deceived or ignoramuses in the area of biblical teaching and science?
How can one be sure of cosmology? Inconvenient quotes:
“I pause to note that one may scan Einstein’s writings in vain to find mention of the Sagnac or Michelson-Gale experiments. The same can be said of general physics textbooks and of the 1971 McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology. … Such an oversight in these distinguished encyclopedias constitutes a stinging indictment of professional scientific reporting.” – Dean Turner, editor of Einstein Myth and the Ives Papers
“Whether or not the motion of the Earth in space can be made perceptible in terrestrial experiments…all attempts of this nature led to a negative result.” – Albert Einstein, German-born theoretical physicist, developed the theory of relativity
“I can construct for you a spherically symmetrical universe with Earth at its center, and you cannot disprove it based on observations. You can only exclude it on philosophical grounds.” – George Ellis (1995) George Ellis is a famous astronomer who has authored books with Stephen Hawking.
“People need to be aware that there is a range of models that could explain the observations, for instance, I can construct you a spherically symmetrical universe with Earth at its center, and you cannot disprove it based on observations.” Ellis has published a paper on this. “You can only exclude it on philosophical grounds. In my view there is absolutely nothing wrong in that. What I want to bring into the open is the fact that we are using philosophical criteria in choosing our models. A lot of cosmology tries to hide that.” W. Wayt Gibbs, Profile: George F. R. Ellis, Scientific American, October 1995, Vol. 273, No.4, p. 55.
“I have come to believe that the motion of the Earth cannot be detected by any optical experiment.” – Einstein, theoretical physicist
“Redshifts would imply that we occupy a unique position in the universe, analogous, in a sense, to the ancient conception of a central Earth… This hypothesis cannot be disproved.” – Edwin Hubble in The Observational Approach to Cosmology
“If the Earth were at the center of the universe, the attraction of the surrounding mass of stars would also produce redshifts wherever we looked! This theory seems quite consistent with our astronomical observations.” – Paul Davies in Nature, an English physicist
“The new results are either telling us that all of science is wrong and we’re the center of the universe, or maybe the data is simply incorrect” – Lawrence Krauss, theoretical physicist and cosmologist, Yale University, Arizona State University, Case Western Reserve University
“When you look at CBM map, [cosmic microwave background (CMB)] you also see that the structure is…correlated with the plane of the Earth around the sun. That would say we are truly the center of the universe.” – Lawrence Krauss (2006) Lawrence Krauss is a theoretical physicist
“The relation of the two pictures [geocentricity and heliocentricity] is reduced to a mere coordinate transformation and it is the main tenet of the Einstein theory that any two ways of looking at the world which are related to each other by a coordinate transformation are entirely equivalent from a physical point of view. Today we cannot say that the Copernican theory is “right” and the Ptolemaic theory “wrong” in any meaningful physical sense.” – Sir Fred Hoyle, an English astronomer who formulated the theory of stellar nucleosynthesis
“Red shift in the spectra of quasars leads to yet another paradoxical result: namely, that the Earth is the center of the Universe.” – Y.P. Varshni in Astrophysics and Space Science
“In other words, assuming the cosmological red shift hypothesis, the quasars…are arrange on 57 spherical shells with Earth in the center. This is certainly an extraordinary result. Some of the possibilities that we shall consider to accommodate this result may be disturbing, but we must consider these possibilities dispassionately.
(1) Coincidence in distances could be possible if there were clustering. However, an examination of the coordinates of the various members of individual groups show that in most cases there is no such correlation. Hence, this explanation has to be ruled out.
(2) Quasars may be arranged like atoms in a crystal lattice, with the Earth being either at an empty lattice site or at a suitable interstitial site. Should that be the case, one would expect some pattern or regularity in the directions of quasars belonging to a certain group. No such evidence is found and this possibility must also be abandoned.
(3) The Earth is indeed the center of the Universe. The arrangement of quasars on certain spherical shells is only with respect to the Earth. These shells would disappear if viewed from another galaxy or a quasar. This means that the cosmological principle will have to go. Also, it implies that a coordinate system fixed to the Earth will be a preferred frame of reference in the Universe. Consequently, both the Special and the General Theory of Relativity must be abandoned for cosmological purposes.” – Y.P. Varshni in Astrophysics and Space Science
“A great deal of research has been carried out concerning the influence of the Earth’s movement. The results were always negative.” – Henri Poincare, French mathematician, theoretical physicist, engineer, and philosopher of science
“Briefly, everything occurs as if the Earth were at rest…” – Henrick Lorentz, Dutch physicist
“No physical experiment has ever proved that the Earth actually is in motion.” – Lincoln Barnett, editor at Life Magazine
“This hypothesis (of a central Earth) cannot be disproved, but it is unwelcome and would only be accepted as a last resort.” “We disregard this possibility. The unwelcome position of a favored location must be avoided at all costs.” “Such a favored position is intolerable.” – Edwin Hubble, American astronomer
“The pendulum has swung all the way and started to come back on the Copernican principle.” – Max Tegmark, physicist, cosmologist and a professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology
“There was just one alternative; the earth’s true velocity through space might happen to have been nil.” – Arthur Eddington, English astronomer, physicist, and mathematician
Is modern science logical?
“Science and a simple syllogism:
Major Premise: It is self-evident the Earth moves around the sun.
Minor Premise: No interferometer has ever measured such movement.
Conclusion: Earth moves, matter shrinks, time dilates, and neither ether nor absolute motion exist. Everything is relative. Case closed.” – Robert A. Sungenis
Consider the movie “The Principle?” “The Principle” is a 2014 American independent film produced by Rick Delano and Robert Sungenis. “The Principle” rejects the Copernican principle and supports the long-superseded notion that Earth is at the center of the Universe.
Anyone who wants to make some money?
This challenge is simple. Anyone who can provide qualified experimental proof that the Earth revolves around the Sun will be paid $100,000.
Dismissing this challenge or laughing this off is not proving the heliocentric theory.
“The theory of relativity is a mass of error and deceptive ideas violently opposed to the teachings of great men of science of the past and even to common sense.” – Nikola Tesla, Serbian-American inventor, electrical engineer, mechanical engineer
“Thus, general relativity brings about its own downfall by predicting singularities.” – Stephen Hawking, theoretical physicist
Watch the movie trailer “Journey to the Center of the Universe.”
Watch the movie trailer “The Principle.”
It is time for Occam’s razor:
William of Ockham (c. 1287–1347), was an English Franciscan friar, scholastic philosopher, and theologian. How does his philosophical razor work? The simplest explanation is usually the right one. Alternatively, amid opposing suppositions, the one with the least assumptions should be selected.
What does this have to do with gocentricity? Can anyone understand or explain Einstein’s special theory of relativity? What about Einstein’s idea of curved space? Did Einstein make up the Special Theory of Relativity as a mathematically theoretical construct to cover up the fact that no known empirical experiment could prove that the Earth is moving?
Experimentations that disprove Einstein are Airy’s experiment, the Michelson-Gale’s experiment, the Michelson-Morley experiments and Sagnac’s experiment are observational experiments that show every time they are done that the Earth is not moving and that there is a substance called aether that moves. Light travels as a wave. This means that light is moving through something that generates the waves, hence aether.
How far does Einstein’s theory of relativity go? Does it displace absolutes? In regards to Occam’s razor, biblical teaching is simply straightforward and true. Moreover, after considering the many quotes for top physicists, can one be certain of heliocentricity? Why are many Christians opposed to the Earth’s unique place in the Universe? Why is it that non-Christians scientists are talking about things like the so-called “axis of evil,” (proving the Earth is the center of the universe) and lack of observational experiments proving that the earth supposedly moves?
A simple man’s questions:
For the heliocentrist, what empirical evidence can be provided that contradicts the Sun, Moon and Stars not moving and the Earth is stationary? Pictures from books or movies are not empirical scientific evidence. What were the results of Sagnac’s experiment? What were the results of Airy’s starlight experiment, or Michelson-Gale’s interferometer experiment and the famous Michelson-Morley interferometer experiment? Why are these experiments absent from textbooks on physics?
The heliocentric theory alleges that the Earth is spinning around its axis at 1,000 miles per hour, revolving around the Sun at 67,000 miles per hour and the Milky Way galaxy at 500,000 miles per hour. Suppose the Earth spins at a constant velocity dragging the atmosphere in such a manner as to cancel centrifugal, gravitational, and inertial forces perfectly. Why do we not feel any evidence of this rapid motion?
Is gravity a solution?
How is it that gravity is strong enough to drag miles of Earth’s atmosphere along, but weak enough to allow little bugs, birds, clouds, smoke, flying kites and planes to travel freely undiminished in any direction? If gravity is so strong to keep water from coming out of the oceans, why can one swirl a glass of water around at substantially less than 1,000 miles per hour, and why does not gravity keep the water from spilling out of the glass? If the Moon’s gravity is strong enough to act upon the Earth’s oceans and cause the tides, then why does it not act upon our atmosphere in the same way?
If the Earth is traveling around the Sun, why do the constellations not change over the course of thousands of years? Why do we always see Orion’s belt and the Big Dipper? Does not this prove that the stars are fixed in their course?
How does air travel work with an Earth spinning 1,000 miles an hour from East to West? How would North to South military artillery or sniper shots work with the Earth spinning at this speed? At 1,000 miles per hour, 16 miles per minute, ¼ mile per second airplanes would crash on North to South runways.
If the Earth rotates on its axis at 1,000 miles per hour revolving around the Sun at 67,000 miles per hour, and the Milky Way Galaxy moving even faster, why is there no observable stellar parallax, (A stellar parallax is a parallax on an interstellar scale: the apparent shift of position of any nearby star or another object against the background of distant objects) specifically bearing in mind that all the other stars and galaxies are revolving around each other and the Earth as well.
Links for more study:
A Special Chalcedon Position Paper by Martin G. Selbrede
“He can command the sun not to rise.” (Job 9:7) Can God do this? What does this mean if modern cosmology is true?
Special bonus feature:
“To God, only wise, be glory through Jesus Christ forever. Amen.” (Romans 16:27) and “heirs according to the promise.” (Galatians 3:28-29)
- John Calvin, Calvin’s Commentaries, Joshua, Volume IV, (Grand Rapids, Michigan, Baker Book House Reprinted 1979), pp. 153-155.
- Augustine, City of God, (New York, Modern Library), Bk XIII, Chapter 18 p. 425.
- Augustine, Chapter 15 p. 88.
- Augustine, Chapter 13 p. 394.
- Ibid. Chapter 8 p. 776.
- John Chrysostom, Homilies to Antioch, Homily XII (Grand Rapids, Michigan, Eerdmans publishing, vol. 9 Reprinted 1978), p. 418.
- John Calvin, Calvin’s Commentaries Volume V1, Psalms, (Grand Rapids, Michigan, Baker Book House, Reprinted 1979), pp. 6-7.
- John Calvin, pp. 148-149.
- Ibid. p. 469.
- Martin Luther, Luther’s Works. Vol. 1. Lectures on Genesis, ed. Janoslaw Pelikan, (Concordia Pub. House, St. Louis, Missouri, 1958), pp. 30, 42, 43.
- Helmut T. Lehmann and Theodore G. Tappert, Luther’s Works Table Talk, (Minneapolis, MN: Augsburg Fortress Publ., 1967), pp. 358-359.
- Matthew Poole, A Commentary on the Holy Bible, Ecclesiastes, Vol. II (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publ., reprint), p. 279.
- John Owen, Biblical Theology: The Nature, Origin, Development, and Study of Theological Truth (Morgan, PA: Soli Deo Gloria Publ., 1994 reprint), p. 38.
- A.W. Pink, Gleanings in Joshua, 13. (Chicago, Moody Press), Joshua 10:1-43. p. 974.3 (EPUB)
Mr. Kettler has previously published articles in the Chalcedon Report and Contra Mundum. He and his wife Marea attend the Westminster, CO, RPCNA Church. Mr. Kettler is the author of the book defending the Reformed Faith against attacks, titled: The Religion That Started in a Hat. Available at: www.TheReligionThatStartedInAHat.com