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Who is a Virtuous Woman? Can a Christian woman work outside the home?

Who is a Virtuous Woman? Can a Christian woman work outside the home? By Jack Kettler

The Scriptures and Women who worked outside the home:

The virtuous woman in Proverbs 31:

“She brings him good, not harm, all the days of her life. She selects wool and flax and works with eager hands. She is like the merchant ships, bringing her food from afar. She gets up while it is still night; she provides food for her family and portions for her female servants. She considers a field and buys it; out of her earnings she plants a vineyard.” (Proverbs 31:12-16 ESV)

The virtuous woman in the above passage is also one who “guides the house” as we read in (1Timothy 5:14). This “guiding the house” in no way conflicts with buying, restate, planting crops or selling merchandise.

More on the virtuous woman:

“She perceives that her merchandise is profitable. Her lamp does not go out at night.” (Proverbs 31:18 ESV)

“She makes linen garments and sells them; she delivers sashes to the merchant.” (Proverbs 31:24 ESV)

Women mentioned in the New Testament:

“And a certain woman named Lydia, a seller of purple, of the city of Thyatira, which worshipped God, heard us: whose heart the Lord opened, that she attended unto the things which were spoken of Paul.” (Acts 16:14)

“And found a certain Jew named Aquila, born in Pontus, lately come from Italy, with his wife Priscilla; (because that Claudius had commanded all Jews to depart from Rome) and came unto them. And because he was of the same craft, he abode with them, and wrought: for by their occupation they were tentmakers.” (Acts 18:2–3)

It almost seems incidental to the text about the two women from the Acts passages and their work. Nevertheless, the two women Lydia and Priscilla who worked outside the home were not admonished for doing so.

Texts used to prove that Women should not work outside the home:

“I will therefore that the younger women marry, bear children, guide the house, give none occasion to the adversary to speak reproachfully.” (1Timothy 5:14)

Guiding the house supposedly means only to work as a homemaker.

“The aged women likewise, that they be in behaviour as becometh holiness, not false accusers, not given to much wine, teachers of good things; that they may teach the young women to be sober, to love their husbands, to love their children, to be discreet, chaste, workers at home, good, obedient to their own husbands, that the word of God be not blasphemed.” (Titus 2:3-5)

“Workers at home” supposedly rule out earning income outside the home. In these two examples, it can be said that more is being taken from the text that is said.

The above two passage set-forth the Godly wife’s primary duties. These texts are the primary passages used to argue for women to stay at home. In these texts, there is no direct command for a woman not to work outside or in the home. The virtuous of Proverbs 31 did both.

A wife can be a “worker at home” and still run a home business, or work outside the home. A married woman’s principal role should be to help her husband. This can mean financial help. Helping her husband by bringing in extra income cannot be excluded. The virtuous woman in Proverbs 31 is a perfect example of this. Proverbs 31 and 1Timothy 5:14; Titus 2:3-5 are not contradictory.

To maintain a dogma against women working is undermined with examples of single moms, or women whose husbands are disabled. Even the strict doctrinaires are forced to give ground to these particular cases.

The case of farming families:

The women stay at home doctrinaires also run into trouble with women milking cows and a host of other farm chores.

In closing:

Admittedly, young women staying home and raising children is the best of the best options. Homeschooling of the children is a full-time job and along with other duties, it is hard to see how more could be asked. Life is not that simple; many situations arise that call for sacrifices to be made, which may involve a woman working outside the home.

A woman working outside the home should not be judged. In addition, she should not be made to feel like a second class in a church that has many stay at home moms. What is ideally right is not always possible in the way God’s providence works out. Because of God’s providence and special cases is why we should not be quick to judge.

“But if any provide not for his own, and especially for those of his own house, he hath denied the faith, and is worse than an infidel.” (1Timothy 5:8)

Does this command only apply to a man? What about single moms? What about a woman whose husband has died and has children in the home? Whatever the circumstance this admonition can apply to both men and women. This closing Scripture gives further support to the idea that a woman can work outside to home. The virtuous woman of Proverbs 31 is biblical woman par excellence. The Bible does not forbid a woman from working outside the home.

“To God, only wise, be glory through Jesus Christ forever. Amen.” (Romans 16:27) and “heirs according to the promise.” (Galatians 3:28, 29)

Mr. Kettler has previously published articles in the Chalcedon Report and Contra Mundum. He and his wife Marea attend the Westminster, CO, RPCNA Church. Mr. Kettler is the author of the book defending the Reformed Faith against attacks, titled: The Religion That Started in a Hat. Available at:

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Observations and Quotations about Atheism and its cousin, Agnosticism

Observations and Quotations about Atheism and its cousin, Agnosticism:

“God is that, the greater than which cannot be conceived.” – Anselm of Canterbury

“Agnosticism is epistemologically self-contradictory on its own assumptions because its claim to make no assertion about ultimate reality rests upon a most comprehensive assertion about ultimate reality.” – Cornelius Van Til

“By this rejection of God, agnosticism has embraced complete relativism. Yet this relativism must furnish a basis for the rejection of the absolute. Accordingly, the standard of self-contradiction taken for granted by antitheistic thought presupposes the absolute for its operation. Antitheism presupposes theism. One must stand upon the solid ground of theism to be an effective antitheist.” – Cornelius Van Til

“The atheist argues that science has proved the nonexistence of God, but the argument is invalid. No scientist has ever produced any evidence that man’s intellect ceases to function at death. Since his methods have not discovered any spirit, Nagel assumes there can be none. He refuses to question his methods. Atheism is not a conclusion developed by his methods; rather it is the assumption on which his methods are based.” – Gordon H. Clark

“The atheist who asserts that there is no God asserts by the same words that he holds the whole universe in his mind; he asserts that no fact, past, present, future, near, or far, escapes his attention, that no power, however great, can baffle or deceive him. In rejecting God, he claims omniscience and omnipotence. In other words, an atheist is one who claims that he himself is God” – Gordon H. Clark,

“When we go to look at the different world views that atheists and theists have, I suggest we can prove the existence of God from the impossibility of the contrary. The transcendental proof for God’s existence is that without Him it is impossible to prove anything. The atheist worldview is irrational and cannot consistently provide the preconditions of intelligible experience, science, logic, or morality. The atheist worldview cannot allow for laws of logic, the uniformity of nature, the ability for the mind to understand the world, and moral absolutes.” – Greg Bahnsen

“I have concluded that we are in a world made by rules created by an intelligence. Believe me, everything that we call chance today won’t make sense anymore. To me it is clear that we exist in a plan which is governed by rules that were created, shaped by a universal intelligence and not by chance.” – Michio Kaku

“The greatest artists, saints, philosophers, and, until quite recent times, scientists… have all assumed that the New Testament promise of eternal life is valid…. I’d rather be wrong with Dante and Shakespeare and Milton, with Augustine of Hippo and Francis of Assisi, with Dr. Johnson, Blake, and Dostoevsky than right with Voltaire, Rousseau, the Huxleys, Herbert Spencer, H. G. Wells, and Bernard Shaw.” – Malcolm Muggeridge

“Since then I have spent well-nigh fifty years working on the history of our Revolution; in the process I have read hundreds of books, collected hundreds of personal testimonies, and have already contributed eight volumes of my own toward the effort of clearing away the rubble left by that upheaval. But if I were asked today to formulate as concisely as possible the main cause of the ruinous Revolution that swallowed up some sixty million of our people, I could not put it more accurately than to repeat: Men have forgotten God; that’s why all this has happened.” – Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn

“It is absurd for the Evolutionist to complain that it is unthinkable for an admittedly unthinkable God to make everything out of nothing, and then pretend that it is more thinkable that nothing should turn itself into everything.” – G. K. Chesterton

“A little philosophy inclineth man’s mind to atheism, but depth in philosophy bringeth men’s minds about to religion.” – Francis Bacon

“I now believe there is a God…I now think it [the evidence] does point to a creative Intelligence almost entirely because of the DNA investigations. What I think the DNA material has done is that it has shown, by the almost unbelievable complexity of the arrangements which are needed to produce life, that intelligence must have been involved in getting these extraordinarily diverse elements to work together.” “…we have all the evidence we need in our immediate experience and that only a deliberate refusal to “look” is responsible for atheism of any variety.” – Antony Flew

“The atheist is cheating whenever he makes a moral judgment, acting as though it has an objective reference, when his philosophy in fact precludes it.” – William A. Dembski

“A universe whose only claim to be believed in rests on the validity of inference must not start telling us the inference is invalid.” – C.S. Lewis

“If there is no God, then all that exists is time and chance acting on matter. If this is true then the difference between your thoughts and mine correspond to the difference between shaking up a bottle of Mountain Dew and a bottle of Dr. Pepper. You simply fizz atheistically and I fizz theistically. This means that you do not hold to atheism because it is true, but rather because of a series of chemical reactions… Morality, tragedy, and sorrow are equally evanescent. They are all empty sensations created by the chemical reactions of the brain, in turn created by too much pizza the night before. If there is no God, then all abstractions are chemical epiphenomena, like swamp gas over fetid water. This means that we have no reason for assigning truth and falsity to the chemical fizz, we call reasoning or right and wrong to the irrational reaction we call morality. If no God, mankind is a set of bi-pedal carbon units of mostly water. And nothing else.” – Douglas Wilson

“If naturalism were true then all thoughts whatever would be wholly the result of irrational causes. It cuts its own throat.” – C.S. Lewis

“When you say there’s too much evil in this world you assume there’s good. When you assume there’s good, you assume there’s such a thing as a moral law on the basis of which to differentiate between good and evil. But if you assume a moral law, you must posit a moral Law Giver, but that’s Who you’re trying to disprove and not prove. Because if there’s no moral Law Giver, there’s no moral law. If there’s no moral law, there’s no good. If there’s no good, there’s no evil. What is your question?” – Ravi Zacharias

“My conclusion is that contrary to popular belief, atheism is not primarily an intellectual revolt, it is a moral revolt. Atheists don’t find God invisible so much as objectionable. They aren’t adjusting their desires to the truth, but rather the truth to fit their desires. This is something we can all identify with. It is a temptation even for believers. We want to be saved as long as we are not saved from our sins. We are quite willing to be saved from a whole host of social evils, from poverty to disease to war. But we want to leave untouched the personal evils, such as selfishness and lechery and pride. We need spiritual healing, but we do not want it. Like a supervisory parent, God gets in our way. This is the perennial appeal of atheism: it gets rid of the stern fellow with the long beard and liberates us for the pleasures of sin and depravity. The atheist seeks to get rid of moral judgment by getting rid of the judge.” – Dinesh D’Souza

“If the laws of logic are metaphysically dependent on God, it follows that every logical argument presupposes the existence of God. What this means is that every sound theistic argument not only proves the existence of God but also presupposes the existence of God, insofar as that argument depends on logical inference. Indeed, every unsound theistic argument presupposes the existence of God. And the same goes, naturally, for every antitheistic argument. The irony must not be missed: one can logically argue against God only if God exists.” – Dale Tuggy and Greg Welty paraphrasing Van Til

“Only the Christian worldview provides the necessary preconditions for the intelligibility of human experience. That is, only the Christian view of God, creation, providence, revelation, and human nature can make sense of the world in which we live. So, for example, only the Christian worldview can make sense out of morality since it alone provides the necessary presuppositions for making ethical evaluations, namely, an absolute and personal Law Giver who reveals His moral will to mankind. It does not make sense, however, for the atheist/materialist to denounce any action as wrong since, according to his worldview, all that exists is matter in motion. And matter in motion is inherently non-moral. That is, since the world according to the materialist is totally explicable in terms of physical processes, and since physical processes are categorically non-moral, moral considerations have no place in his worldview. Thus for the materialist to say that stealing is morally wrong makes as much sense as saying that the secretion of insulin from the pancreas is morally wrong. (This is not to say, however, that atheists never act morally. Atheists feed their children, give money to charity and often make good neighbors. But atheists cannot give a justification for their actions. In the words of Cornelius Van Til, they are living on “borrowed capital” from the Christian worldview. Thus, they profess one thing, but their actions belie this profession).” – Michael Butler

“You think you are too intelligent to believe in God. I am not like you.” – Napoleon Bonaparte

“The statement that ‘God is dead’ comes from Nietzsche and has recently been trumpeted abroad by some German and American theologians. But the good Lord has not died of this; He who dwells in the heaven laughs at them.” – Karl Barth

“The fool hath said in his heart, there is no God.” (Psalm 14:1)

God Bless,
Jack Kettler

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What is a Biblical Prophet?

What is a Biblical Prophet?                                                                  By Jack Kettler

This study will be a general overview of what constitutes the nature of a biblical prophet. As will be seen, the Old Testament prophetic office was a foreshadowing of the heavenly office of Christ and His headship over the Church. Christ’s present mediatorial reign and implications will be briefly considered. As in previous studies, we will look at definitions, scriptures, commentary evidence, and confessional support for the purpose to glorify God in how we live.


What is a prophet in the Bible?

Answer: In a general sense, a prophet is a person who speaks God’s truth to others. The English word prophet comes from the Greek word prophetes, which can mean “one who speaks forth” or “advocate.” Prophets are also called “seers,” because of their spiritual insight or their ability to “see” the future. *


“A prophet is someone who is the mouthpiece of God. He stands between God and man to communicate to man the Word of God. When the prophet spoke as the mouthpiece, he was inspired and without error. The prophet, though, is not a puppet or a mindless repeater of what he hears. Instead, he retains his own will, mind, and thoughts as he speaks for God. God would put His words in their mouths (Deut. 18:18, Jer. 1:9). A prophet was God’s servant (Zech. 1:6) and messenger (2Chron. 36:15). The prophecies fell into three categories: concerning the destiny of Israel, the messianic prophecies, and eschatological prophecies. The term Law and Prophets refers to the writings of the OT divided into two categories. The Law is the Pentateuch or Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. The Prophets are all the rest of the OT books.” **

Scriptures and select commentary entries:

“The LORD your God will raise up for you a prophet like me from among you, from your brothers—it is to him you shall listen.” (Deuteronomy 18:15 ESV)

Whom was Moses speaking of in this passage?

From the Pulpit Commentary on the passage from Deuteronomy we read:

“Verses 15-22. – There should be no need for Israel to turn to heathen soothsayers, or diviners, or such like, because from amongst themselves, of their own brethren, would God raise up prophets like unto Moses, who, as occasion required, would reveal to them what God willed them to know. Verse 15. – A Prophet. The Hebrew word so rendered (נָבִיא) is a derivative from a verb (נָבָא), which signifies to tell, to announce; hence the primary concept of the word is that of announcer, or forth-speaker; and to this the word “prophet” (Greek προφήτης from πρόφημι, I speak before or in place of) closely corresponds; the prophet is one who speaks in the place of God, who conveys God’s word to men, who is an interpreter of God to men. (As illustrative of the meaning of the word, cf. Exodus 7:1; Exodus 4:16.) Hence Abraham is called a prophet (Genesis 20:7), and the term is applied to the patriarchs generally (Psalm 105:15); God conveyed his mind to them, and they spoke it forth to others (cf. Amos 3:7). Like unto me. When the people heard the voice of God speaking to them at Sinai, and from the midst of the fire uttering to them the Ten Words, they were struck with terror, and besought that they might not again hear that awful voice, but that Moses might act as mediator between God and them – might hear what God should say, and speak it unto them (Deuteronomy 5:22-27). Moses thus became God’s prophet to the people; and of this, he reminds them here, as well as of the circumstances amid which he entered specially on this office (cf. vers. 16, 17). The phrase, “like unto me,” does not necessarily imply that the prophet who was to come after Moses was to be in every respect the same as he; all that is indicated is that he would act as Moses had acted as a mediator between God and the people in the way of conveying his will to them.” (1)

Deuteronomy speaks of a coming prophet. The next passage from Luke shows the fulfillment of Moses’ prophecy.

“Fear seized them all, and they glorified God, saying, “A great prophet has arisen among us!” and “God has visited his people!” (Luke 7:16 ESV)

From Gill’s Exposition of the Entire Bible on Luke 7:16:

“And there came a fear on all … That were there present, and heard, and saw what was done. Not a fear of dread, and terror, and of punishment, as in devils and wicked men; but a fear and reverence of the divine majesty, whose power and presence they were sensible must be there at that time:

and they glorified God; they praised him, and gave thanks to him, ascribing this amazing action to divine power, and gave God the glory of it; and blessed him for the Messiah, who was sent unto them, as they concluded Jesus to be, from this wonderful instance:

saying, that a great prophet is risen up among us; even that great prophet Moses wrote of, and said should be raised up from among the children of Israel, Deuteronomy 18:15 and that God hath visited his people. The Arabic version adds, “for good.” For God sometimes visits for evil, in a wave of wrath and sore displeasure; but this was a visitation for good: they concluded that God had looked upon them with a look of love, and had a gracious regard to them, and had sent them the Messiah, who, they hoped, would deliver them from the Roman yoke; as he had formerly looked upon, and visited their fathers, and sent a redeemer to them, to deliver them from Egyptian bondage. The Ethiopic version renders it, “and God hath mercy on his people;” and the Persic version, ‘God hath looked upon his people, and hath taken care of them.’” (2)

The writer of Hebrews further confirms the fulfillment of what is said in Luke:

“Long ago, at many times and in many ways, God spoke to our fathers by the prophets, but in these last days he has spoken to us by his Son, whom he appointed the heir of all things, through whom also he created the world. He is the radiance of the glory of God and the exact imprint of his nature, and he upholds the universe by the word of his power. After making purification for sins, he sat down at the right hand of the Majesty on high.” (Hebrews 1:1-3 ESV)

In times past God spoke through His prophets. Now He speaks through His Son.

Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary summarizes the Hebrews passage nicely:

“1:1-3 God spake to his ancient people at sundry times, through successive generations, and in divers manners, as he thought proper; sometimes by personal directions, sometimes by dreams, sometimes by visions, sometimes by Divine influences on the minds of the prophets. The gospel revelation is excellent above the former, in that it is a revelation, which God has made by his Son. In beholding the power, wisdom, and goodness of the Lord Jesus Christ, we behold the power, wisdom, and goodness of the Father, Joh 14:7; the fulness of the Godhead dwells, not typically, or in a figure, but really, in him. When, on the fall of man, the world was breaking to pieces under the wrath and curse of God, the Son of God, undertaking the work of redemption, sustained it by his almighty power and goodness. From the glory of the person and office of Christ, we proceed to the glory of his grace. The glory of His person and nature, gave to his sufferings such merit as was a full satisfaction to the honour of God, who suffered an infinite injury and affront by the sins of men. We never can be thankful enough that God has in so many ways, and with such increasing clearness, spoken to us fallen sinners concerning salvation. That he should by himself cleanse us from our sins is a wonder of love beyond our utmost powers of admiration, gratitude, and praise.” (3)

Hence, Jesus is the fulfillment of the future prophet spoken of in Deuteronomy 18:15. Moreover, the perfection of Christ in His position as head of the Church negates the need for Old Testament type prophets functioning today. This argument of Christ’s headship rests upon the sufficiency of Christ. Christ’s representatives today are pastors, teachers and deacons. For elders, see Titus 1:5, 7; Acts 20:17, 28 and for deacons see Acts 20:35; 1Timothy 5:17.

Christ and His exalted place as the head of the Church:

“And hath put all things under his feet, and gave him to be the head over all things to the church.” (Ephesians 1:22)

Offices of Christ as head of the Church:

Presently Jesus occupies three main offices: Prophet, Priest, and King first seen in the Old Covenant with Israel. In the New Covenant, these three offices became combined into one office held exclusively by the Lord Jesus Christ.

These Messianic offices anticipated in the Old Covenant:

The Messianic Prophet is seen in “The LORD thy God will raise up unto thee a Prophet from the midst of thee, of thy brethren, like unto me; unto him ye shall hearken.” (Deuteronomy 18:15)

The Messianic Priest is seen in: “The Lord hath sworn, and will not repent; Thou art a priest for ever after the order of Melchizedek.” (Psalm 110:4)

The Messianic King is seen in “Yet have I set my king upon my holy hill of Zion.” (Psalm 2:6)

Scriptural passages that support the Threefold offices of Christ:

From Scripture, Christ as a Prophet:

“A prophet shall the Lord your God raise up unto you of your brethren, like unto me; him shall ye hear in all things whatsoever he shall say unto you. And it shall come to pass, that every soul, which will not hear that prophet, shall be destroyed from among the people.” (Acts 3:22-23)

From Scripture, Christ as a Priest:

“Even he shall build the temple of the LORD and he shall bear the glory, and shall sit and rule upon his throne; and he shall be a priest upon his throne: and the counsel of peace shall be between them both.” (Zechariah 6:13)

From Scripture, Christ as a King:

“Yet have I set my king upon my holy hill of Zion.” (Psalm 2:6)

“Fear not, daughter of Sion: behold, thy King cometh, sitting on an ass’s colt.” (John 12:15)

“Which in his times he shall shew, who is the blessed and only Potentate, the King of kings, and Lord of lords.” (1Timothy 6:15)

Christ holds the unified office of Prophet, Priest, and King, and shares it with no one. The writer of Hebrews in 7:13-17 declares that Jesus is the one eternal high priest after the order of Melchizedek.

Now for some valuable overviews of the Old Testament biblical prophets.

General characteristics of a prophet by Louis Berkhof:


  1. The terms used in Scripture. The Old Testament uses three words to designate a prophet, namely, nabhi, ro’eh, and chozeh. The radical meaning of the word nabhi is uncertain, but it is evident from such passages as Ex. 7:1 and Deut. 18:18 that the word designates one who comes with a message from God to the people. The words ro’eh and chozeh stress the fact that the prophet is one who receives revelations from God, particularly in the form of visions. These words are used interchangeably. Other designations are “man of God”, “messenger of the Lord”, and “watchman”. These appellatives indicate that the prophets are in the special service of the Lord, and watch for the spiritual interests of the people. In the New Testament the word prophetes is used, which is composed of pro and phemi. The preposition is not temporal in this case. Consequently, the word prophemi does not mean “to speak beforehand”, but “to speak forth”. The prophet is one who speaks forth from God. From these names, taken together, we gather that a prophet is one who sees things, that is, who receives revelations, who is in the service of God, particularly as a messenger, and who speaks in His name.
  2. The two elements combined in the idea. The classical passages, Ex. 7:1 and Deut. 18:18 indicate that there are two elements in the prophetic function, the one passive, and the other active, the one receptive, and the other productive. The prophet receives divine revelations in dreams, visions, or verbal communications; and passes these on to the people, either orally, or visibly in prophetical actions, Num. 12:6-8; Isa. 6; Jer. 1:4-10; Ezek. 3:1-4,17. Of these two elements, the passive is the most important, because it controls the active element. Without receiving, the prophet cannot give, and he cannot give more than he receives. But the active is also an integral element. One who receives a revelation is not yet necessarily a prophet. Think of Abimelech, Pharaoh, and Nebuchadnezzar, who all received revelations. What constitutes one a prophet, is the divine calling, the instruction, to communicate the divine revelation to others.
  3. The duty of the prophets. It was the duty of the prophets to reveal the will of God to the people. This might be done in the form of instruction, admonition and exhortation, glorious promises, or stern rebukes. They were the ministerial monitors of the people, the interpreters of the law, especially in its moral and spiritual aspects. It was their duty to protest against mere formalism, to stress moral duty, to urge the necessity of spiritual service, and to promote the interests of truth and righteousness. If the people departed from the path of duty, they had to call them back to the law and to the testimony, and to announce the coming terror of the Lord upon the wicked. But their work was also intimately related to the promise, the gracious promises of God for the future. It was their privilege to picture the glorious things, which God had in store for His people. It is also evident from Scripture that the true prophets of Israel typified the great coming prophet of the future, Deut. 18:15, cf. Acts 3:22-24, and that He was already functioning through them in the days of the Old Testament, I Pet. 1:11.” (4)

Another overview of biblical prophets during Old Testament times from the Easton Bible Dictionary:


“(Heb. nabi, from a root meaning, “to bubble forth, as from a fountain,” hence “to utter,” Compare Psalms 45:1). This Hebrew word is the first and the most generally used for a prophet. In the time of Samuel another word, ro’eh, “seer,” began to be used (1Samuel 9:9). It occurs seven times in reference to Samuel. Afterwards another word, hozeh, “seer” (2Samuel 24:11), was employed. In 1Chronicles, 29:29, all these three words are used: “Samuel the seer (ro’eh), Nathan the prophet (nabi‘), Gad the seer” (hozeh). In Josh 13:22Balaam is called (Heb.) a kosem “diviner,” a word used only of a false prophet.

The “prophet” proclaimed the message given to him, as the “seer” beheld the vision of God. (See Numbers 12:6 Numbers 12:8.) Thus a prophet was a spokesman for God; he spake in God’s name and by his authority (Exodus 7:1). He is the mouth by which God speaks to men (Jeremiah 1:9; Isaiah 51:16), and hence what the prophet says is not of man but of God (2Peter 1:20 2Peter 1:21; Compare Hebrews 3:7; Acts 4:25; 28:25). Prophets were the immediate organs of God for the communication of his mind and will to men (Deuteronomy 18:18 Deuteronomy 18:19). The whole Word of God may in this general sense be spoken of as prophetic, inasmuch as it was written by men who received the revelation they communicated from God, no matter what its nature might be. The foretelling of future events was not a necessary but only an incidental part of the prophetic office. The great task assigned to the prophets whom God raised up among the people was “to correct moral and religious abuses, to proclaim the great moral and religious truths which are connected with the character of God, and which lie at the foundation of his government.”

Any one being a spokesman for God to man might thus be called a prophet. Thus Enoch, Abraham, and the patriarchs, as bearers of God’s message (Genesis 20:7; Exodus 7:1; Psalms 105:15), as also Moses (Deuteronomy 18:15; 34:10; Hosea 12:13), are ranked among the prophets. The seventy elders of Israel (Numbers 11:16-29), “when the spirit rested upon them, prophesied;” Asaph and Jeduthun “prophesied with a harp” (1Chronicles 25:3). Miriam and Deborah were prophetesses (Exodus 15:20; Judges 4:4). The title thus has a general application to all who have messages from God to men.

But while the prophetic gift was thus exercised from the beginning, the prophetical order as such began with Samuel. Colleges, “schools of the prophets,” were instituted for the training of prophets, who were constituted, a distinct order (1Samuel 19:18-24; 2Kings 1Samuel 2:3 1Samuel 2:15; 4:38), which continued to the close of the Old Testament. Such “schools” were established at Ramah, Bethel, Gilgal, Gibeah, and Jericho. The “sons” or “disciples” of the prophets were young men (2Kings 5:22; 2Kings 9:1 2Kings 9:4) who lived together at these different “schools” (4:38-41). These young men were taught not only the rudiments of secular knowledge, but they were brought up to exercise the office of prophet, “to preach pure morality and the heart-felt worship of Jehovah, and to act along and co-ordinately with the priesthood and monarchy in guiding the state aright and checking all attempts at illegality and tyranny.”

In New Testament times the prophetical office was continued. Our Lord is frequently spoken of as a prophet Luke 13:33; 24:19). He was and is the great Prophet of the Church. There was also in the Church a distinct order of prophets (1Corinthians 12:28; Ephesians 2:20; 3:5), who made new revelations from God. They differed from the “teacher,” whose office it was to impart truths already revealed.

Of the Old Testament prophets there are sixteen, whose prophecies form part of the inspired canon. These are divided into four groups:

The prophets of the northern kingdom (Israel), viz., Hosea, Amos, Joel, Jonah.

The prophets of Judah, viz., Isaiah, Jeremiah, Obadiah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah.

The prophets of Captivity, viz., Ezekiel and Daniel.

The prophets of the Restoration, viz., Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi.” (5)


A true prophet spoke the Word of God. After the closing of the canon of Scripture ongoing divine revelation ceased along with the prophetic office. See this writer’s chapters on “Sola Scriptura” and the “Primacy of Scripture” in the book The Religion that started in a Hat. We are still to be on guard against false prophets “Beware of false prophets, which come to you in sheep’s clothing, but inwardly they are ravening wolves” (Matthew 7:15). This warning does not prove that there are real prophets.

With the indwelling power of the Holy Spirit, prophets from among men of old during the infancy of redemptive history are no longer needed. Christ Jesus is our heavenly prophet and mediator.

A necessary aside, we will look at the unique Mediatorship of Christ:

Westminster Confession of Faith Chapter 8:1-3 and Scriptural proofs addresses this:

Section 1.) It pleased God, in His eternal purpose, to choose and ordain the Lord Jesus, His only begotten Son, to be the Mediator between God and man;(1) the Prophet,(2) Priest,(3) and King;(4) the Head and Saviour of His Church;(5) the Heir of all things;(6) and Judge of the world;(7) unto whom He did from all eternity give a people, to be His seed,(8) and to be by Him in time redeemed, called, justified, sanctified, and glorified.(9)

(1) Isa 42:1; 1Pe 1:19,20; John 3:16; 1Ti 2:5 (2) Ac 3:22 (3) Heb. 5:5,6 (4) Ps 2:6; Lk 1:33 (5) Eph. 5:23 (6) Heb. 1:2 (7) Ac 17:31 (8) John 17:6; Ps 22:30; Isa 53:10 (9) 1Ti 2:6; Isa 55:4,5; 1Co 1:30

Section 2.) The Son of God, the second person in the Trinity, being very and eternal God, of one substance and equal with the Father, did, when the fulness of time was come, take upon Him man’s nature,(1) with all the essential properties and common infirmities thereof, yet without sin;(2) being conceived by the power of the Holy Ghost, in the womb of the Virgin Mary, of her substance.(3) So that two whole, perfect, and distinct natures, the Godhead and the manhood, were inseparably joined together in one person, without conversion, composition, or confusion.(4) Which person is very God, and very man, yet one Christ, the only Mediator between God and man.(5)

(1) John 1:1, 14; 1Jn 5:20; Philippians 2:6; Gal 4:4 (2) Heb. 2:14, 16, 17; Heb. 4:15 (3) Lk 1:27, 31, 35; Gal 4:4 (4) Lk 1:35; Col 2:9; Ro 9:5; 1Pe 3:18; 1Ti 3:16 (5) Ro 1:3, 4; 1Ti 2:5

Section 3.) The Lord Jesus, in His human nature thus united to the divine, was sanctified and anointed with the Holy Spirit above measure;(1) having in Him all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge;(2) in whom it pleased the Father that all fulness should dwell:(3) to the end, that being holy, harmless, undefiled, and full of grace and truth,(4) He might be thoroughly furnished to execute the office of a Mediator and Surety.(5) Which office He took not unto Himself, but was thereunto called by His Father;(6) who put all power and judgment into His hand, and gave Him commandment to execute the same.(7)

(1) Ps 45:7; John 3:34 (2) Col 2:3 (3) Col 1:19 (4) Heb. 7:26; John 1:14 (5) Ac 10:38; Heb. 12:24; Heb. 7:22 (6) Heb. 5:4, 5 (7) John 5:22, 27; Mt 28:18; Ac 2:36

In particular, note what section three states:

The Confession of Faith, (chap. 8.3.), declares, “Which office he took not to himself, but was thereunto called by his Father, who put all power and judgment into his hand, and gave him a commandment to execute the same.” This reference is speaking of Christ the Mediator.

What is a Mediator? Easton’s Bible Dictionary has a nice entry that is helpful:

“It is one who intervenes between two persons who are at variance, with a view to reconcile them. This word is not found in the Old Testament; but the idea it expresses is found in Job 9:33, in the word “daysman” (q.v.), marg., “umpire.”

This word is used in the New Testament to denote simply an internuncius, an ambassador, one who acts as a medium of communication between two contracting parties. In this sense, Moses is called a mediator in Galatians 3:19.

Christ is the one and only mediator between God and man (1Timothy 2:5; Hebrews 8:6; 9:15; 12:24). He makes reconciliation between God and man by his all-perfect atoning sacrifice. Such a mediator must be at once divine and human, divine, that his obedience and his sufferings might possess infinite worth, and that he might possess infinite wisdom and knowledge and power to direct all things in the kingdoms of providence and grace which are committed to his hands (Matthew 28:18; John 5:22 John 5:25 John 5:26 John 5:27); and human, that in his work he might represent man, and be capable of rendering obedience to the law and satisfying the claims of justice (Hebrews 2:17 Hebrews 2:18; Hebrews 4:15 Hebrews 4:16), and that in his glorified humanity he might be the head of a glorified Church (Romans 8:29).

This office involves the three functions of prophet, priest, and king, all of which are discharged by Christ both in his estate of humiliation and exaltation. These functions are so inherent in the one office that the quality appertaining to each gives character to every mediatorial act. They are never separated in the exercise of the office of mediator.” (6)

In closing:

“Then comes the end, when he [Jesus] shall have delivered up the kingdom to God, even the Father; when he shall have put down all rule and all authority and power. For he must reign until he has put all enemies under his feet. The last enemy that shall be destroyed is death.” (1Corinthians 15:24-26)

Christ is now reigning and as our prophet, priest, and king and His work as the heavenly mediator further invalidates the need for an Old Testament like prophets functioning in the New Covenant era. Christ’s reign is continuing as we still are awaiting the last enemy death to be destroyed. The prophetic, priestly, and kingly offices of the Old Covenant all find perfect fulfillment in the Lord Jesus Christ. Do we need a prophet today? Yes, it is Jesus, and He is our all-sufficient prophet.


  1. H. D. M. Spence and Joseph S. Exell, The Pulpit Commentary, Deuteronomy, Vol.3., (Grand Rapids, Michigan, Eerdmans Publishing Company reprint 1978), p. 303-304.
  2. John Gill, Exposition of the Old and New Testaments, Luke, (Grace Works, Multi-Media Labs), 2011, p. 200.
  3. Matthew Henry, Concise Commentary, Hebrews, (Nashville, Tennessee, Thomas Nelson), p. 1992.
  4. Louis Berkhof, Systematic Theology, (Grand Rapids, Eerdmans Publishing, 1949), pp. 357-358.
  5. M.G. Easton M.A., D.D., Illustrated Bible Dictionary, “Prophet,” Third Edition, published by Thomas Nelson, 1897.
  6. M.G. Easton M.A., D.D., Illustrated Bible Dictionary, “Mediator,” Third Edition, published by Thomas Nelson, 1897.

“To God, only wise, be glory through Jesus Christ forever. Amen.” (Romans 16:27) and “heirs according to the promise.” (Galatians 3:28, 29)

Mr. Kettler has previously published articles in the Chalcedon Report and Contra Mundum. He and his wife Marea attend the Westminster, CO, RPCNA Church. Mr. Kettler is the author of the book defending the Reformed Faith against attacks, titled: The Religion That Started in a Hat. Available at: THERELIGIONTHATSTARTEDINAHAT.COM

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The internal testimony of the Holy Spirit and the connection to the Word of God

The internal testimony of the Holy Spirit and the connection to the Word of God By Jack Kettler

As in previous studies, we will look at definitions, scriptures, commentary evidence, and confessional support for the purpose to glorify God in how we live.

The internal testimony of the Holy Spirit, called the testimonium Spiritus sancti internum whereby we are convinced of the truthfulness of the Word of God. This doctrine has important implications for our assurance of salvation.

The following passages show the relationship and work of the Holy Spirit to illumine the believer’s minds to believe the Word of God and have the certainty of saving faith.

From Scripture and select commentary entries:

“And when he putteth forth his own sheep, he goeth before them, and the sheep follow him: for they know his voice.” (John 10:4)

From Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary on John 10:4:

“10:1-5 Here is a parable or similitude, taken from the customs of the East, in the management of sheep. Men, as creatures depending on their Creator, are called the sheep of his pasture. The church of God in the world is as a sheep-fold, exposed to deceivers and persecutors. The great Shepherd of the sheep knows all that are his, guards them by his providence, guides them by his Spirit and word, and goes before them, as the Eastern shepherds went before their sheep, to set them in the way of his steps. Ministers must serve the sheep in their spiritual concerns. The Spirit of Christ will set before them an open door. The sheep of Christ will observe their Shepherd, and be cautious and shy of strangers, who would draw them from faith in him to fancies about him.” (1)

“My sheep hear my voice, and I know them, and they follow me.” (John 10:27)

“And disagreeing among themselves, they departed after Paul had made one statement: “The Holy Spirit was right in saying to your fathers through Isaiah the prophet.” (Acts 28:25 ESV)

In the above two passages, we see the work of the Holy Spirit in confirming and leading Christ’s people.

“The Spirit itself beareth witness with our spirit, that we are the children of God.” (Romans 8:16)

From Barnes’ Notes on the Bible on Romans 8:16:

“The Spirit – The Holy Spirit. That the Holy Spirit here is intended, is evident,

(1) Because this is the natural meaning of the expression;

(2) Because it is of the Holy Spirit that the apostle is mainly treating here;

(3) Because it would be an unnatural and forced construction to say of the temper of adoption that it bore witness.

Beareth witness – Testifies, gives evidence.

With our spirit – To our minds. This pertains to the adoption; and it means that the Holy Spirit furnishes evidence to our minds that we are adopted into the family of God. This effect is not infrequently attributed to the Holy Spirit, 2Corinthians 1:22; 1John 5:10-11; 1Corinthians 2:12. If it be asked how this is done, I answer, it is not by any revelation of new truth; it is not by inspiration; it is not always by assurance; it is not by a mere persuasion that we are elected to eternal life; but it is by producing in us the appropriate effects of his influence. It is his to renew the heart; to sanctify the soul; to produce “love, joy, peace, long-suffering, gentleness, goodness, faith, meekness, temperance,” Galatians 5:22-23. If a man has these, he has evidence of the witnessing of the Spirit with his spirit. If not, he has no such evidence. And the way, therefore, to ascertain whether we have this witnessing of the Spirit, is by an honest and prayerful inquiry whether these fruits of the Spirit actually exist in our minds. If they do, the evidence is clear. If not, all vain confidence of good estate, all visions, and raptures, and fancied revelations, will be mere delusions. It may be added, that the effect of these fruits of the Spirit and the mind is to produce a calm and heavenly frame; and in that frame, when attended with the appropriate fruits of the Spirit in a holy life, we may rejoice as an evidence of piety.

That we are the children of God – That we are adopted into his family.” (2)

“And because ye are sons, God hath sent forth the Spirit of his Son into your hearts, crying, Abba, Father.” (Galatians 4:6)

“Because our gospel came to you not only in word, but also in power and in the Holy Spirit and with full conviction. You know what kind of men we proved to be among you for your sake.” (1Thessalonians 1:5 ESV)

Once more, we see in Galatians and 1Thessalonians the work of the Holy Spirit in confirming and authenticating the Word of God.

“Therefore, as the Holy Spirit says, Today, if you hear his voice,” (Hebrews 3:7 ESV)

From Vincent’s Word Studies on Hebrews 3:7:

“Wherefore as the Holy Ghost saith (διὸ καθὼς λέγει τὸ πνεῦμα τὸ ἅγιον)

See on Hebrews 1:6. The formula the Spirit the holy (Spirit) is common in the N.T. with the exception of the Catholic Epistles, where it does not occur. The construction of the passage is as follows: Διὸ wherefore is connected with βλέπετε take heed, Hebrews 3:12. The point is the writer’s warning, not the warning of the citation. The whole citation including the introductory formula, down to rest, Hebrews 3:11, is parenthetical.

Today if ye will hear his voice (σήμερον ἐάν τῆς φωνῆς αὐτοῦ ἀκούσητε)

The Hebrew reads, O that you would hear his voice today. Today is prophetically interpreted by the writer as referring to the Christian present, the time of salvation inaugurated by the appearance of Christ.” (3)

Protestant reformer John Calvin was in the lead explaining the internal testimony of the Holy Spirit. It would be good to consider some of his insights.

John Calvin on the testimony of the Holy Spirit:

“’The testimony of the Spirit is more excellent than all reason. For as God alone is a fit witness of himself in his Word, so also the Word will not find acceptance in men’s hearts before it is sealed by the inward testimony of the Spirit” (I, 7.4).

“Therefore, illumined by his power, we believe neither by our own nor by anyone else’s judgment that Scripture is from God; but above human judgment we affirm with utter certainty (just as if we were gazing upon the majesty of God himself) that it has flowed to us from the very mouth of God by the ministry of men. We seek no proofs, no marks of genuineness upon which our judgment may lean; but we subject our judgment and wit to it as to a thing far beyond any guesswork” (I, 7.5).

“Scripture will ultimately suffice for a saving knowledge of God only when its certainty is founded upon the inward persuasion of the Holy Spirit. . . . But those who wish to prove to unbelievers that Scripture is the Word of God are acting foolishly, for only by faith can this be known” (I, 8.13). (4)

In the above quotes, Calvin explains how Holy Spirit confirms and establishes the authority of the Scriptures. Calvin called this the internal witness of the Spirit the testimonium Spiritus sancti internum.

Theologian Gordon H. Clark puts the insight of Calvin into a contemporary language in the next citation.

Regeneration: The Key to Believing the Truth by Gordon H. Clark

“When Adam fell, the human race became, not stupid so that the truth was hard to understand, but inimical, to the acceptance of the truth. Men did not like to retain God in their knowledge and changed the truth of God into a lie, for the carnal mind is enmity against God. Hence the preaching of the cross is to them that perish foolishness, for the natural man receives not the things of the Spirit of God because they are spiritually discerned. In order to accept the Gospel, therefore, it is necessary to be born again. The abnormal, depraved intellect must be remade by the Holy Spirit; the enemy must be made a friend. This is the work of regeneration, and the heart of stone can be taken away and a heart of flesh can be given only by God himself. Resurrecting the man who is dead in sin and giving him a new life, far from being a human achievement, requires nothing less then almighty power.

It is therefore impossible by argument or preaching alone to cause anyone to believe the Bible. Only God can cause such belief. At the same time, this does not mean that argument is useless. Peter tells us, “always be ready to give a defense to everyone who asks you a reason for the hope that is in you.” This was the constant practice of the apostles. Stephen disputed with the Libertines; the Jerusalem council disputed; in Ephesus Paul disputed three months in the synagogue and then continued disputing in the school of Tyrannus. (Acts 6:9; 15:7; 19:8, 9: compare Acts 17:2; 18:4, 19; 24:25). Anyone who is unwilling to argue, dispute, and reason is disloyal to his Christian duty.

At this point, the natural question is what is the use of all this expounding and explaining if it does not produce belief? The answer should be clearly understood. The witness or testimony of the Holy Spirit is a witness to something. The Spirit cannot produce belief in Christ unless a sinner has heard of Christ. “How then shall they call on him of whom they have not heard? … So then faith comes by hearing, and hearing by the Word of God” (Romans 10:14, 17).

No doubt, God in his omnipotence could reveal the necessary information to each man individually without a written Bible or ministerial preaching. But this is not what God has done. God gave the apostles and preachers the duty of expounding the message; but the production of belief is the work of the Spirit, for faith is the gift of God.

This is part of the reason why it was said above that the best procedure for us, if we want someone to accept the doctrine of plenary and verbal inspiration, is to expound the Scripture in detail. We may well use archaeology and historical criticism too, but the main task is to communicate the message of the Bible in as understandable language as we can manage.

It is to be noted too that the sinner, without any special work of the Spirit, can understand the message. Belief in its truth and understanding its meaning are two different things. The Bible can be understood by the same methods of study used on Euclid or Aristotle. Despite some pious disclaimers, it is true that antagonistic unbelievers often enough understand the Bible better than devout Christians. The Pharisees saw the significance of Christ’s claims to deity more quickly and more clearly than the disciples did.

As Paul persecuted the Christians in Jerusalem and set out for Damascus, he understood the words, “Jesus is Lord” as well as any of the twelve. It was precisely because he understood so well that he persecuted so zealously. Had he been unsure of the meaning, he would not have been so exercised. But the trouble was, he did not believe it. On the contrary, he believed that it was false. Then on the Damascus road Christ appeared to him and caused him to believe that the statement was true. Paul did not understand the phrase any better a moment after his conversion than a moment before. Doubtless, in later years God revealed further information to him for use in his epistles. But at the moment, Christ did not enlarge his understanding one whit; he caused him to receive, accept, or believe what he had already understood quite well. Thus it is that the Spirit witnessed to the message previously communicated.

Strong emphasis needs to be placed on the work of the Holy Spirit. Man is dead in sin, an enemy of God, opposed to all righteousness and truth. He needs to be changed. Neither the preacher nor, much less, the sinner himself can cause the change. But “blessed is the man whom you choose, and cause to approach you” (Psalm 65:4). “And I will take the stony heart out of their flesh, and give them a heart of flesh” (Ezekiel 11:19; 36:26, 27). “As many as had been appointed to eternal life believed” (Acts 13:48). “God when we were dead in trespasses, made us alive together with Christ” (Ephesians 2:4-5). “For it is God who works in you both to will and to do for his good pleasure” (Philippians 2:13). “God from the beginning chose you for salvation through sanctification by the Spirit and belief in the truth” (2Thessalonians 2:13). “Of his own will he brought us forth by the word of truth” (James 1:18).

These verses, which primarily refer to regeneration, are applicable to our acceptance of the Bible as the very word of God. Indeed, the new life which the second birth initiates the life to which we are “raised from the death of sin” is precisely the life of faith; and a full faith includes a plenary and verbal inspiration of the salvation message. It is the gift of God.

This is why the greatest of all the creeds issuing from the Reformation, the Westminster Confession says:

The authority of the Holy Scripture, for which it ought to be believed and obeyed, dependeth not upon the testimony of any man or Church, but wholly upon God (who is Truth itself), the author thereof; and, therefore, it is to be received, because it is the Word of God. “our full persuasion and assurance of the infallible truth and divine authority thereof is from the inward work of the Holy Spirit, bearing witness, by and with the Word, in our heart (I, iv and v.)

In the last analysis, therefore “although historical and archaeological confirmation of the Bible” accuracy is of great interest to us and of great embarrassment to unbelievers a conviction that the Bible is really the Word of God cannot be the conclusion of a valid argument based on more clearly evident premises. This conviction is produced by the Holy Spirit himself.

It must always be kept in mind that the proclamation in the Gospel is part of a spiritual struggle against the supernatural powers of the evil one, and victory comes only through the omnipotent grace of God. Accordingly, as Jesus explained his mission to both Peter and the Pharisees, so we today must expound and explain the Scripture in all its fullness to all sorts of men; and we can then be assured that our Father in Heaven will reveal his truth to some of them.” (5)

Philosopher Alvin Plantinga has examined the necessary conditions for human knowledge. He states this in a logical form.

He says that a person:

“S knows some proposition P only if:

(1) S believes P,

(2) P is true,

(3) S’s belief in P is produced by a cognitive faculty that is (a) functioning properly in an appropriate environment and (b) successfully aimed at truth.” (6)

Chapter one in the Westminster Confession of Faith states:

“The authority of the Holy Scripture, for which it ought to be believed, and obeyed, dependeth not upon the testimony of any man, or Church; but wholly upon God (who is truth itself) the author thereof: and therefore, it is to be received, because it is the Word of God.”

In closing:

“And when he putteth forth his own sheep, he goeth before them, and the sheep follow him: for they know his voice.” (John 10:4)

Therefore, we can say with the apostle, Christ’s followers know his voice. These Scriptures surveyed are the grounds of our certainty and assurance.


1. Matthew Henry, Concise Commentary, John, (Nashville, Tennessee, Thomas Nelson), p. 1673.

2. Albert Barnes, THE AGES DIGITAL LIBRARYCOMMENTARY, Barnes’ Notes on the Bible, Romans, p. 2190.

3. Marvin R. Vincent, Word Studies In The New Testament, THE AGES DIGITAL LIBRARY, (Albany, Oregon), p. 963.

4. Calvin, John, Institutes of the Christian Religion, ed. John T. McNeill, trans. Ford Lewis Battles, The Library of Christian Classics, XX-XXI, (Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1960), Book I, I, 7.4, I, 7.5, I, 8.13.

5. Gordon H. Clark, God’s Hammer: The Bible and its Critics, (Jefferson, Maryland, The Trinity Foundation), p. 20-23.

6. Alvin Plantinga, Warranted Christian Belief, (Oxford England, Oxford University Press, 2000), pp. 153-56.

“To God, only wise, be glory through Jesus Christ forever. Amen.” (Romans 16:27) and “heirs according to the promise.” (Galatians 3:28, 29)
Mr. Kettler has previously published articles in the Chalcedon Report and Contra Mundum. He and his wife Marea attend the Westminster, CO, RPCNA Church. Mr. Kettler is the author of the book defending the Reformed Faith against attacks, titled: The Religion That Started in a Hat. Available at:

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Biblical reasons for opposing Colorado’s Red Flag Order, an opinion

Biblical reasons for opposing Colorado’s Red Flag Order, an opinion by Jack Kettler

Colorado has passed one of the most onerous and unconstitutional so-called red flag laws. The evaluation of this so-called law will focus on a biblical assessment of it. The bill is due to become law on January 1, 2020, is called the extreme risk protection order (ERPO).

First, the ERPO will be evaluated on how it is a direct violation of the “Eighth Commandment” and second as an infringement of biblical case or procedural laws. In addition, the Second, Fourth, and Fifth Amendments of the “Bill of Rights” are rooted in biblical law, and as will be seen, these amendments are in direct conflict with the ERPO. In this evaluation, there will be some jumping back and forth between biblical and constitutional laws and quotations by the founding fathers.

See the link below for the online reading of the bill. The bill is written in typical vague (could mean many things to different people) legalese, the language of attorneys.

The Overarching Central Law the ERPO is in violation of:

“Thou shalt not steal.” (Exodus 20:15)

The “Eighth Commandment” is a prohibition against the stealing of personal property.

Stealing Property and the ERPO:

A firearm is a personal piece of property.

It is inescapable that the ERPO involves the taking of property by force if the property owner refuses to comply with a red flag order. A proponent of the ERPO may say that this removal of a person’s firearms is only temporary if the accused later proves his or her innocence. Proving innocence later is not part of our legal system or any system based upon biblical law.

For example, Sir William Blackstone, the renowned English jurist on innocent until proven guilty:

“all presumptive evidence of felony should be admitted cautiously, for the law holds that it is better that ten guilty persons escape than that one innocent suffer.” (1)

Biblical law puts the brakes on quick legal judgments. Blackstone’s argument that evidence should be admitted cautiously is rooted in the book of Deuteronomy 17:6.

“On the evidence of two witnesses or three witnesses, the one who is to die shall be put to death; a person shall not be put to death on the evidence of one witness.” (Deuteronomy 17:6 ESV)

The presumption of innocence is a biblical concept.

The prophet Micah in metaphoric language condemns the destruction of property by rulers of the people:

“And I said, Hear, I pray you, O heads of Jacob, and ye princes of the house of Israel; is it not for you to know judgment? Who hate the good, and love the evil; who pluck off their skin from off them, and their flesh from off their bones; who also eat the flesh of my people, and flay their skin from off them; and they break their bones, and chop them in pieces, as for the pot, and as flesh within the caldron. Then shall they cry unto the LORD, but he will not hear them: he will even hide his face from them at that time, as they have behaved themselves ill in their doings.” (Micah 3:1-4)

Destruction of property has the same effect as the unjust taking of property.

The Fifth Amendment and the taking of private property:

“No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.”

The Fifth Amendment is rooted in biblical law, specifically Deuteronomy 17:6. In violation of the Fifth Amendment, Colorado’s ERPO offers no just compensation; instead, it has the threat of raw force unless submitting to unproven accusations contained in the ERPO. Under the ERPO, the property is not being taken for public use, but allegedly for the public good.

John Adams on the importance of property rights and the commandments of Heaven:

“Suppose a nation, rich and poor, high and low, ten millions in number, all assembled together; not more than one or two millions will have lands, houses, or any personal property; if we take into the account the women and children, or even if we leave them out of the question, a great majority of every nation is wholly destitute of property, except a small quantity of clothes, and a few trifles of other movables. Would Mr. Nedham be responsible that, if all were to be decided by a vote of the majority, the eight or nine millions who have no property, would not think of usurping over the rights of the one or two millions who have? Property is surely a right of mankind as really as liberty. Perhaps, at first, prejudice, habit, shame or fear, principle or religion, would restrain the poor from attacking the rich, and the idle from usurping on the industrious; but the time would not be long before courage and enterprise would come, and pretexts be invented by degrees, to countenance the majority in dividing all the property among them, or at least, in sharing it equally with its present possessors. Debts would be abolished first; taxes laid heavy on the rich, and not at all on the others; and at last a downright equal division of everything be demanded, and voted. What would be the consequence of this? The idle, the vicious, the intemperate, would rush into the utmost extravagance of debauchery, sell and spend all their share, and then demand a new division of those who purchased from them. The moment the idea is admitted into society, that property is not as sacred as the laws of God, and that there is not a force of law and public justice to protect it, anarchy and tyranny commence. If “Thou shalt not covet,” and “Thou shalt not steal,” were not commandments of Heaven, they must be made inviolable precepts in every society, before it can be civilized or made free.” (2)

Webster’s Dictionary concurs:

“Theft is the general term and larceny the legal term for the unlawful or felonious taking away of another’s property without his or her consent and with the intention of depriving the person of it; robbery in its strict legal sense implies the felonious taking of another’s property from that person or in his or her immediate presence by the use of violence or intimidation.” – Webster’s New World Dictionary

Before legal prerequisites are met, Adams and the Webster dictionary consider the taking of property stealing.

The next section in this biblical evaluation is in regards to case or procedural law. Case or procedural law is how the mechanism of government works. Is the ERPO biblical or not?

Four areas of biblical concern regarding the ERPO with overlaps between the points:

A. Essentially, there is a nonexistent standard of evidence required in the ERPO.

One anonymous witness can put the ERPO process in motion. According to Scripture, the evidence must be confirmed biblically. God’s law is the standard one witness is not enough.

“A single witness shall not rise up against a man on account of any iniquity or any sin which he has committed; on the evidence of two or three witnesses a matter shall be confirmed.” (Deuteronomy 19:15)

Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Bible Commentary on Deuteronomy 19:15:

“De 19:15. Two Witnesses Required.

15. One witness shall not rise up against a man for any iniquity – The following rules to regulate the admission of testimony in public courts are founded on the principles of natural justice. A single witness shall not be admitted to the condemnation of an accused person.” (3)

Any action by the police based upon one witness according to biblical law is unacceptable. Colorado’s ERPO has no process of determining if the accusation brought forth is true or not. Issuing an order because the accusation sounds credible is purely subjective.

B. Colorado’s ERPO involves the Slander of innocent citizens.

As stated in point A., the state has no valid mechanism under the ERPO to determine beyond a doubt that the accusation against and individual is true.

Because of this inability, the ERPO court order may be nothing more than spreading a lie:

“You shall not spread a false report. You shall not join hands with a wicked man to be a malicious witness.” (Exodus 23:1)

“A man who bears false witness against his neighbor is like a war club, or a sword, or a sharp arrow.” (Proverbs 25:18)

There is no guarantee in the ERPO that someone coming forth to inform on his or her neighbor is not lying. In some cases of red flag laws, a monetary bond must be procured, which will be forfeited upon finding the affirmation describing the situation to be false or misleading. Restrictions like these at least provide some deterrent against a false witness. Colorado’s ERPO has no biblical process to determine the truth or falsity of an accuser’s accusations.

C. There is no notification of the right to counsel in Colorado’s ERPO.

In Colorado’s ERPO, the accused does not even know that he or she is accused. Essentially, the state of Colorado has begun legal action against someone without notification. The police can show up at the accused’s house unannounced, proving that there is no legal notification.

In contrast, biblical justice requires more than one judge to review the case to determine the merit of the accusation or accusations against an individual.

“The judges shall inquire diligently, and if the witness is a false witness and has accused his brother falsely, then you shall do to him as he had meant to do to his brother.” (Deuteronomy 19:18)

Under Colorado’s ERPO, no one is inquiring diligently. John Gill’s comments on the Deuteronomy 19:18 passage is helpful.

Gill’s Exposition of the Entire Bible on Deuteronomy 19:18:

“And the judges shall make diligent inquisition … Into the case before them, into the nature of the evidence and proof that each witness brings for or against; so the Targum of Jonathan, “the judges shall interrogate the witness, by whom these things are said, well;’ shall thoroughly examine the testimony given, and look carefully into it:

And, behold, if the witness be a false witness, and hath testified falsely against his brother; it appears plainly by full evidence that he has testified a falsehood of him.” (4)

As said, in the Colorado ERPO, the accused does not even know that he or she has been accused and by this very nature would not know they needed legal advice. Biblical procedural law requires review by judges, plural who inquire diligently.

D. There is no actual defense for the accused against false accusations or the right of cross-examination in the ERPO.

In this section under point D. Deuteronomy, 19:18 is again relevant.

“The judges shall inquire diligently, and if the witness is a false witness and has accused his brother falsely, then you shall do to him as he had meant to do to his brother.” (Deuteronomy 19:18)

In this second use of Deuteronomy, we will use Barnes’ Notes on the Bible on Deuteronomy 19:18:

“Both the men, between whom the controversy is – Not the accused and the false witness, but the plaintiff and defendant (compare Exodus 23:1) who were summoned before the supreme court held, as provided in Deuteronomy 17, at the sanctuary. The judges acted as God’s representative; to lie to them was to lie to Him.” (5)

The next passage from Deuteronomy 25:1 further confirms this:

“If there is a dispute between men, they are to go to court to be judged, so that the innocent may be acquitted and the guilty condemned.” (Deuteronomy 25:1)

Under the ERPO, the accused has no opportunity to confront and challenge his accuser according to biblical precedent. In fact, the accused does not know of any police action against them until threatened by surprise unannounced, highly dangerous confrontation without any time to make a proper rational evaluation of the situation on the part of the defendant.

Will the accused upon an unannounced police raid think they are the victim of a home invasion? If so and subsequently brandishing a firearm, will the police shoot the accused, along with family members and pets?

Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary summarizes this section from Deuteronomy on court proceedings:

“19:15-21 Sentence should never be passed upon the testimony of one witness alone. A false witness should suffer the same punishment, which he sought to have inflicted upon the person he accused. Nor could any law be more just. Let all Christians not only be cautious in bearing witness in public, but be careful not to join in private slanders; and let all whose consciences accuse them of crime, without delay flee for refuge to the hope set before them in Jesus Christ.” (6)

Fourth Amendment and God-given rights protection:

“The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.”

The Fourth Amendment did not just arise out of thin air in the framer’s mind. The Fourth Amendment has strong, biblical influence, namely, that the sanctity of a man’s home should not be infringed.

The biblical standard for this procedural case law is in Deuteronomy 24:10-11 that prohibits a lender from entering a man’s home without his permission to secure the payment of debt:

“When you make your neighbor a loan of any sort, you shall not go into his house to collect his pledge. You shall stand outside, and the man to whom you make the loan shall bring the pledge out to you.” (Deuteronomy 24:10-11 ESV)

Concerning this case law, R. J. Rushdoony explains the restriction:

“This law sets down a premise which has had a major impact on Christendom. When, in colonial America, Judge James Otis decreed that “a man’s home is his castle,” he had reference to this law. Intrusion into a man’s house is a violation of his freedom. God’s law protects a man from the malice and interference of powerful men. To protect men’s houses and properties is to uphold God’s order because God has established the legitimate boundaries of the family’s jurisdiction and freedom.” (7)


Colorado’s ERPO goes way beyond intruding into a person’s home. As said earlier, it is inescapable that the ERPO involves the taking of property. The way this plays out is either voluntary or involuntary. If the police come to your house unannounced and confront you about the property you may own, you have two choices, comply or resist.

There is legal precedent for resisting police who are acting illegally or where the police in a no-knock raid have the wrong address. However, resisting may involve serious injury or worse to a number of individuals.


Do the police have a search warrant? What judge signed the warrant? What does the warrant say about what is being searched for? Who signed the oath or affirmation in the warrant? What is the probable cause listed in the warrant? Does an ERPO have the same status as a warrant?

A warrant should have the above questions answered based upon eyewitness affirmation of items of concern, whereas Colorado’s ERPO requires none. If an item of concern is a gun, what constitutional right does a government official have to list a gun as something to be seized if the accused has committed no crime? The Second Amendment protects the right of gun ownership. Biblically, the Second Amendment falls under self-defense passages in Scripture, such as Nehemiah 4:16-18.

“From that day on, half of my servants worked on construction, and half held the spears, shields, bows, and coats of mail. And the leaders stood behind the whole house of Judah, who were building on the wall. Those who carried burdens were loaded in such a way that each labored on the work with one hand and held his weapon with the other. And each of the builders had his sword strapped at his side while he built. The man who sounded the trumpet was beside me.” (Nehemiah 4:16-18 ESV)

Colorado’s ERPO takes away a citizen’s right to self-defense.

A Response by the Accused:

Depending upon the nature of the raid, the accused may respond to the police by demanding a warrant as a precondition for entry. If the police have no properly signed warrant to show the property owner, the accused can order the police off his or her property.

Anyone following the news knows that the highest fed gov law enforcement, the FBI, and the Department of Justice officials have lied to obtain FISA court warrants against innocent citizens. To put complete trust in law enforcement officials, and judges and to think that there will not be abuses is foolish. If you think only fed gov officials can be corrupt, you are foolish indeed.

What are God Given rights, and can legislative actions invalidate them?

The concept of man’s rights being unalienable* is grounded upon the conviction of their God-given source. God-given rights can be called “Natural Rights,” which means “under the decrees of God’s creation,” God confers these rights upon humanity. * Definition of unalienable: not exchangeable for another, and are not capable of being denied.

Colorado’s ERPO throws the wisdom of founding father Alexander Hamilton out the window:

“…No legislative act, therefore, contrary to the Constitution, can be valid. To deny this, would be to affirm, that the deputy is greater than his principal; that the servant is above his master; that the representatives of the people are superior to the people themselves; that men acting by virtue of powers, may do not only what their powers do not authorize, but what they forbid.” – Federalist Paper #78 Alexander Hamilton

Hamilton uses the age-old question, which came first the chicken or the egg. Specifically, which came first the people or the state? Obviously, the people who, through their representatives, constructed the contract or Constitution containing the “Bill of Rights.” The “Bill of Rights” are limitations on the state. Therefore, too justifiably put words in Hamilton’s mouth, Colorado’s ERPO is not valid. That is why a number of Colorado county sheriffs have said they will not enforce any ERPO’s.

Colorado’s ERPO and the trashing of over 3 thousand years of legal protection:

In this writer’s opinion, Colorado’s ERPO is not a warrant or even a lawful order. It is essentially a piece of paper issued by a star chamber. Maybe Colorado will soon send police officers with “orders” to pay money or turn in your car to the state.

As seen from the above quotes, more than 3 thousand years ago in Deuteronomy, Israel, and an agrarian nation had superior legal standards than Colorado does today.

If you believe that pedophile Jeffrey Epstein hung himself, the guards fell asleep and technical surveillance camera equipment failed; you will love this tyrannical man-made law via the state of Colorado.

The legislators who put this piece of so-called legislation together should be ashamed of themselves. It will be, in all certainty, be overturned in higher courts. Unfortunately, a number of innocent citizens may suffer great harm, while legal reviews and challenges take place.


1. Sir William Blackstone, Commentaries on the Laws of England, (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, J.B. Lippincott), Vol. 4, Chapter 27, p. 5.

2. John Adams, “A Defence of the Constitutions of Government of the United States of America,” Vol. 3, First Chapter: The Right Constitution of a Commonwealth Examined, 1787-1788, Works 6:8-9.

3. Jamieson, Fausset and Brown, Commentary on the Whole Bible, (Grand Rapids, Michigan, Zondervan, 1977) p. 156.

4. John Gill, Exposition of the Old and New Testaments, Deuteronomy, (Grace Works, Multi-Media Labs), 2011, p. 230.

5. Albert Barnes, THE AGES DIGITAL LIBRARYCOMMENTARY, Barnes’ Notes on the Bible, Deuteronomy, Vol. 1, p. 379.

6. Matthew Henry, Concise Commentary, Deuteronomy, (Nashville, Tennessee, Thomas Nelson), p. 330.

7. R. J. Rushdoony, Commentaries on the Pentateuch, Deuteronomy, (Vallecito, California, Ross House Books, 2008), p. 389-390.

Mr. Kettler has previously published articles in the Chalcedon Report and Contra Mundum. He and his wife Marea attend the Westminster, CO, RPCNA Church. Mr. Kettler is the author of the book defending the Reformed Faith against attacks. Available at:

HB19-1177 Extreme Risk Protection Orders Extreme Risk Protection Orders | Colorado General Assembly
Extreme Risk Protection Orders | Colorado General Assembly

For more reading:

A Government of Wolves: The Emerging American Police State by John W. Whitehead

Battlefield America: The War On The American People by John W. Whitehead

Licensed to Lie by Sydney Powell

Three Felonies A Day: How the Feds Target the Innocent by Harvey Silverglate and Alan M. Dershowitz

You Have the Right to Remain Innocent by Law professor James J. Duane

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What is a Cult?

What is a Cult? By Jack Kettler

A Fact Sheet

How to define a Cult:

Fundamentally, a cult is a religious system with distinctive rites and customs. Cultus comes from Latin and means worship.


A group usually religious that is unorthodox, and has an abnormal commitment to an authoritarian leader or group of leaders and is characterized by exclusiveness (we are the only ones) along with secret doctrines and practices not easy to get to by the public. The word cult is not found in Scripture. In addition, the word cult is comparable to saying aberrational, heretical, either, which would describe an organized group that follows false prophets or false teachers.


A belief that is contrary to orthodox religious doctrine, specifically, Christian creedal formulations.


A sect is a subgroup or offshoot of a religious belief system.

From a Christian Perspective:

“We define the word ‘cult’ to mean a group of religious people whose belief system and practices deviate significantly from and often contradict the Holy Scriptures as interpreted by orthodox, biblical Christianity and as expressed in such statements as the Apostles’ Creed.” (1)

General Observations:

First, a cult is a group that loves something or someone. For example, the phenomena of the “Elvis cult,” which is made up of devoted fans. A film (Rocky Horror Picture Show) or rock band (The Grateful Dead) can have cult status.

Second, a cult is a religion whose beliefs differ from the mainstream of a particular religion. For example, Sufism usually is translated “mysticism,” could be considered an Islamic sect or cult. Jehovah’s Witnesses and Mormons are Christian cults.

Third, is exclusivity, governed by secrecy, and has authoritarian structures.

Forth, an abnormal commitment or devotion to a leader or group of leaders.

Fifth, will play upon fears, the world to end soon.

Sixth, will cut people off from families or those who raise questions about the validity of the group.

Scriptural Warnings and Admonishments:

“And then if anyone says to you, ‘look, here is the Christ!’ or ‘Look, there he is!’ do not believe it. For false Christs and false prophets will arise and perform signs and wonders, to lead astray, if possible, the elect.” (Mark 13:21-23 ESV)

“For I know this that after my departing shall grievous wolves enter in among you, not sparing the flock. Also of your own selves shall men arise, speaking perverse things, to draw away disciples after them.” (Acts 20:29-30 KJV)

“For such are false apostles, deceitful workers, transforming themselves into the apostles of Christ. And no marvel; for Satan himself is transformed into an angel of light. Therefore, it is no great thing if his ministers also are transformed as the ministers of righteousness; whose end shall be according to their works.” (2Corinthians 11:13-15 KJV)

“All scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness.” (2Timothy 3:16 KJV)

Is there value in studying cults and cultic teachings versus the Bible?

When you know the truth, that which is genuine, you will quickly recognize the counterfeit. Bank tellers spend time becoming familiar with real currency. After this familiarity with the real thing, encountering the fake currency is easy. It is the same with biblical doctrine. Spend your time becoming experts in understanding sound doctrine. Then when encountering false doctrine, it will be easy to detect an error.

In closing:

“Through thy precepts I get understanding: therefore I hate every false way.” (Psalm 119:104)


1. Ronald Enroth, Evangelizing the Cults, (Servant Publications, 1990), p. 11.

“To God, only wise, be glory through Jesus Christ forever. Amen.” (Romans 16:27) and “heirs according to the promise.” (Galatians 3:28, 29)

Mr. Kettler has previously published articles in the Chalcedon Report and Contra Mundum. He and his wife Marea attend the Westminster, CO, RPCNA Church. Mr. Kettler is the author of the book defending the Reformed Faith against attacks, titled: The Religion That Started in a Hat. Available at:


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The Names of Jesus in Scripture

The Names of Jesus by Jack Kettler

The name of the Savior Jesus is significant in New Testament usage in that it is comparable the use of the name of God in the Old Testament.

The original Hebrew-Aramaic name of Jesus is yeshu‘a, which is short for yehōshu‘a or Joshua. The etymological account of the name Jesus is as follows: in Hebrew/Aramaic yeshu‘a in Greek it became Iēsous, then Latin Iesus, and then into English as Jesus.

Here is just some of what the Scripture says about the name of Jesus:

“For where two or three are gathered together in My name, I am there in the midst of them.” (Matthew 18:20) (Yellow highlighting mine)

“But as many as received Him, to them He gave the right to become Children of God, to those who believe in His name.” (John 1:12)

“And His name, through faith in His name, has made this man strong, whom you see and know. Yes, the faith which comes through Him has given him this perfect soundness in the presence of you all.” (Acts 3:16)

“Nor is there salvation in any other, for there is no other name under heaven given among men by which we must be saved.” (Acts 4:12)

“And whatever you do in word or deed, do all in the name of the Lord Jesus, given thanks to God the father through Him.” (Colossians 3:17)

When you study the names of Jesus in Scripture, you will see Him in a more profound way.

The following is an abbreviated list of names of the Lord Jesus Christ appearing in the New Testament. In addition, His prophetic names appearing in the Old Testament.

The Strong’ number is listed in between the Hebrew or Greek word followed by the transliteration for study convenience.

Example one Hebrew: Shiloh – (שִׁיל֔וֹ) 7886 (šî-lōw,

Example 2 Greek: High Priest – ἀρχιερέα 749 archierea

The names of our Lord:

Almighty – Παντοκράτωρ 3841 Pantokratōr

“I am the Alpha and the Omega,” says the Lord God, “who is and who was and who is to come, the Almighty.” (Revelation 1:8)

Alpha And Omega – Ἄλφα, 1 Alpha – Ὦ, 5598 Ō

“I am the Alpha and the Omega,” says the Lord God, “who is and who was and who is to come, the Almighty.” (Revelation 1:8)

Apostle of our Profession – Ἀπόστολον 652 Apostolon – ὁμολογίας 3671 homologias

“Therefore, holy brothers, you who share in a heavenly calling, consider Jesus, the apostle and high priest of our confession.” (Hebrews 3:1)

Amen – Ἀμήν 281 Amēn

“And to the angel of the church in Laodicea write: ‘The words of the Amen, the faithful and true witness, the beginning of God’s creation.” (Revelation 3:14)

Author (founder) and Finisher (perfecter) – ἀρχηγὸν 747 archēgon – τελειωτὴν 5051 teleiōtēn

“Looking to Jesus, the founder and perfecter of our faith, who for the joy that was set before him endured the cross, despising the shame, and is seated at the right hand of the throne of God.” (Hebrews 12:2)

Beloved – Ἠγαπημένῳ, 25 Ēgapēmenō

“To the praise of his glorious grace, with which he has blessed us in the Beloved.” (Ephesians 1:6)

Beloved Servant – ἀγαπητός 27 agapētos – παῖς 3816 pais

“Behold, my servant whom I have chosen, my beloved with whom my soul is well pleased. I will put my Spirit upon him, and he will proclaim justice to the Gentiles.” (Matthew 12:18)

Blessed And Only Potentate – μακάριος 3107 makarios – μόνος 3441 monos – Δυνάστης, 1413 Dynastēs

“Which he will display at the proper time he who is the blessed and only Sovereign, the King of kings and Lord of lords.” (1Timothy 6:15)

Beginning of God’s Creation – ἀρχὴ 746 archē – Θεοῦ 2316 Theou – κτίσεως 2937 ktiseōs

“And to the angel of the church in Laodicea write: ‘The words of the Amen, the faithful and true witness, the beginning of God’s creation.” (Revelation 3:14)

Branch – וְנֵ֖צֶר 5342 wə-nê-ṣer

“There shall come forth a shoot from the stump of Jesse, and a branch from his roots shall bear fruit.” (Isaiah 11:1)

Bread of Life – ἄρτος 740 artos – ζωῆς· 2222 zōēs

“Jesus said to them, “I am the bread of life; whoever comes to me shall not hunger, and whoever believes in me shall never thirst.” (John 6:35)

Bridegroom – νυμφίος; 3566 nymphios

“And Jesus said to them, “Can the wedding guests mourn as long as the bridegroom is with them? The days will come when the bridegroom is taken away from them, and then they will fast.” (Matthew 9:15)

Bright Morning Star – λαμπρός, 2986 lampros – πρωϊνός. 4407 prōinos – ἀστὴρ 792 astēr

“I, Jesus, have sent my angel to testify to you about these things for the churches. I am the root and the descendant of David, the bright morning star.” (Revelation 22:16)

Captain of Salvation – ἀρχηγὸν 747 archēgon – σωτηρίας 4991 sōtērias

“For it was fitting that he, for whom and by whom all things exist, in bringing many sons to glory, should make the captain of their salvation perfect through suffering.” (Hebrews 2:10)

Chief Shepherd – Ἀρχιποίμενος 750 Archipoimenos

“And when the chief Shepherd appears, you will receive the unfading crown of glory.” (1Peter 5:4)

Carpenter – τέκτων, 5045 tektōn

“Is not this the carpenter, the son of Mary and brother of James and Joses and Judas and Simon? And are not his sisters here with us? And they took offense at him.” (Mark 6:3)

Chosen One – ἐκλεκτός. 1588 eklektos

“And the people stood by, watching, but the rulers scoffed at him, saying, “He saved others; let him save himself, if he is the Christ of God, his Chosen One!” (Luke 23:35)

Consolation of Israel – παράκλησιν 3874 paraklēsin – Ἰσραήλ, 2474 Israēl

“Now there was a man in Jerusalem, whose name was Simeon, and this man was righteous and devout, waiting for the consolation of Israel, and the Holy Spirit was upon him.” (Luke 2:25)

Christ of God – Χριστὸν 5547 Christon – Θεοῦ. 2316 Theou

“Then he said to them, “But who do you say that I am?” And Peter answered, “The Christ of God.” (Luke 9:20)

The Cornerstone – ἀκρογωνιαίου 204 akrogōniaiou

“Built on the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Christ Jesus himself being the cornerstone.” (Ephesians 2:20)

Dayspring – ἀνατολὴ 395 anatolē

“Through the tender mercy of our God; whereby the dayspring (the Sunshine) from on high hath visited us.” (Luke 1:78)

Deliverer – Ῥυόμενος, 4506 Rhyomenos

“And in this way all Israel will be saved, as it is written, “The Deliverer will come from Zion; he will banish ungodliness from Jacob.” (Romans 11:26)

Desire of the Nations – חֶמְדַּ֣ת 2532 ḥem-daṯ – הַגּוֹיִ֔ם 1471 hag-gō-w-yim,

“And I will shake all nations, and the desire of all nations shall come: and I will fill this house with glory, saith the LORD of hosts.” (Haggai 2:7)

Door – θύρα· 2374 thyra

“I am the door. If anyone enters by me, he will be saved and will go in and out and find pasture.” (John 10:9)

Everlasting Father – אֲבִיעַ֖ד 5703 ’ă-ḇî-‘aḏ

“For to us a child is born, to us a son is given; and the government shall be upon his shoulder, and his name shall be called Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace.” (Isaiah 9:6)

Emmanuel – אֵֽל׃ 6005 ’êl.

“Therefore, the Lord himself shall give you a sign; Behold, a virgin shall conceive, and bear a son, and shall call his name Immanuel.” (Isaiah 7:14)

Faithful Witness – πιστός, 4103 pistos – μάρτυς 3144 martys

“And from Jesus Christ, who is the faithful witness, and the first begotten of the dead, and the prince of the kings of the earth. Unto him that loved us, and washed us from our sins in his own blood.” (Revelation 1:5)

First and Last – πρῶτος 4413 prōtos – ἔσχατος 2078 eschatos

“When I saw him, I fell at his feet as though dead. But he laid his right hand on me, saying, “Fear not, I am the first and the last.” (Revelation 1:17)

First Begotten – πρωτότοκος 4416 prōtotokos

“And from Jesus Christ, who is the faithful witness, and the first begotten of the dead, and the prince of the kings of the earth. Unto him that loved us, and washed us from our sins in his own blood.” (Revelation 1:5)

Forerunner – πρόδρομος 4274 prodromos

“Where Jesus has gone as a forerunner on our behalf, having become a high priest forever after the order of Melchizedek.” (Hebrews 6:20)

Glory of the Lord – כְּב֣וֹד 3519 kə-ḇō-wḏ – יְהוָ֑ה 3068 Yah-weh;

“And the glory of the LORD shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together, for the mouth of the LORD has spoken.” (Isaiah 40:5)

God – יְהוָ֑ה 3068 Yah-weh;

“A voice cries: “In the wilderness prepare the way of the LORD; make straight in the desert a highway for our God.” (Isaiah 40:3)

God Blessed – Θεὸς 2316 Theos – εὐλογητὸς 2128 eulogētos

“To them belong the patriarchs, and from their race, according to the flesh, is the Christ, who is God over all, blessed forever. Amen.” (Romans 9:5)

Good Shepherd – καλός. 2570 kalos – ποιμὴν 4166 poimēn

“I am the good shepherd. The good shepherd lays down his life for the sheep.” (John 10:11)

High Priest – ἀρχιερέα 749 archierea

“Since then we have a great high priest who has passed through the heavens, Jesus, the Son of God, let us hold fast our confession.” (Hebrews 4:14)

Head of the Church – κεφαλὴ 2776 kephalē – τῆς 3588 tēs – ἐκκλησίας, 1577 ekklēsias

“For the husband is the head of the wife even as Christ is the head of the church, his body, and is himself its Savior.” (Ephesians 5:23)

Apostle and High Priest – Ἀπόστολον 652 Apostolon – Ἀρχιερέα 749 Archierea

“Therefore, holy brothers, you who share in a heavenly calling, consider Jesus, the apostle and high priest of our confession.” (Hebrews 3:1)

Holy One – Ἅγιος 40 Hagios

“What have you to do with us, Jesus of Nazareth? Have you come to destroy us? I know who you are—the Holy One of God.” (Mark 1:24)

Hope – ἐλπίδος 1680 elpidos

“Paul, an apostle of Christ Jesus by command of God our Savior and of Christ Jesus our hope.” (1Timothy 1:1)

A Horn of Salvation – κέρας 2768 keras – σωτηρίας 4991 sōtērias

“And has raised up a horn of salvation for us in the house of his servant David.” (Luke 1:69)

I Am – ἐγὼ 1473 egō – εἰμί. 1510 eimi

“Jesus said to them, “Truly, truly, I say to you, before Abraham was, I am.” (John 8:58)

Image of God – εἰκὼν 1504 eikōn – Θεοῦ. 2316 Theou

“In their case the god of this world has blinded the minds of the unbelievers, to keep them from seeing the light of the gospel of the glory of Christ, who is the image of God.” (2Corinthians 4:4)

Jesus – Ἰησοῦν· 2424 Iēsoun

“She will bear a son, and you shall call his name Jesus, for he will save his people from their sins.” (Matthew 1:21)

Judge – κριτής, 2923 kritēs

“Henceforth there is laid up for me the crown of righteousness, which the Lord, the righteous judge, will award to me on that Day, and not only to me but also to all who have loved his appearing.” (2Timothy 4:8)

Lamb – Ἀρνίου 721 Arniou

“And all who dwell on earth will worship it, everyone whose name has not been written before the foundation of the world in the book of life of the Lamb who was slain.” (Revelation 13:8)

Lamb of God – Ἀμνὸς 286 Amnos – Θεοῦ 2316 Theou

“The next day he saw Jesus coming toward him, and said, “Behold, the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world!” (John 1:29)

Leader and Commander – נָגִ֥יד 5057 nā-ḡîḏ – וּמְצַוֵּ֖ה 6680 ū-mə-ṣaw-wêh

“Behold, I made him a witness to the peoples, a leader and commander for the peoples.” (Isaiah 55:4)

The Life – ἡ 3588 hē – ζωή· 2222 zōē

“Jesus said to him, “I am the way, and the truth, and the life. No one comes to the Father except through me.” (John 14:6)

Light of the World – φῶς 5457 phōs – τοῦ 3588 tou – κόσμου· 2889 kosmou

“Again Jesus spoke to them, saying, “I am the light of the world. Whoever follows me will not walk in darkness, but will have the light of life.” (John 8:12)

Lion of the Tribe of Judah – Λέων 3023 Leōn – φυλῆς 5443 phylēs – Ἰούδα, 2448 Iouda

“And one of the elders saith unto me, Weep not: behold, the Lion of the tribe of Juda, the Root of David, hath prevailed to open the book, and to loose the seven seals thereof.” (Revelation 5:5)

Lord of All – Κύριος. 2962 Kyrios – πάντων 3956 pantōn

“As for the word that he sent to Israel, preaching good news of peace through Jesus Christ (he is Lord of all).” (Acts 10:36)

Lord of Glory – Κύριον 2962 Kyrion – δόξης 1391 doxēs

“None of the rulers of this age understood this, for if they had, they would not have crucified the Lord of glory.” (1Corinthians 2:8)

Lord is our Righteousness – יְהוָ֥ה ׀ 3068 Yah-weh – צִדְקֵֽנוּ׃ 6664 ṣiḏ-qê-nū.

“In his days Judah will be saved, and Israel will dwell securely. And this is the name by which he will be called: ‘The LORD is our righteousness.’ (Jeremiah 23:6)

Living Water – ζῶν. 2198 zōn – ὕδωρ 5204 hydōr

“Jesus answered her, “If you knew the gift of God, and who it is that is saying to you, ‘Give me a drink,’ you would have asked him, and he would have given you living water.” (John 4:10)

Lord of Lords – ΚΥΡΙΟΣ 2962 KYRIOS – ΚΥΡΙΩΝ. 2962 KYRIŌN

“On his robe and on his thigh he has a name written, King of kings and Lord of lords.” (Revelation 19:16)

King of the Jews – βασιλεὺς 935 basileus – τῶν 3588 tōn – Ἰουδαίων; 2453 Ioudaiōn

“Where is he who has been born king of the Jews? For we saw his star when it rose and have come to worship him.” (Matthew 2:2)

Man of Sorrows – אִ֥ישׁ 376 ’îš – מַכְאֹב֖וֹת 4341 maḵ-’ō-ḇō-wṯ

“He was despised and rejected by men; a man of sorrows, and acquainted with grief; and as one from whom men hide their faces he was despised, and we esteemed him not.” (Isaiah 53:3)

Mediator – μεσίτης 3316 mesitēs

“For there is one God, and there is one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus.” (1Timothy 2:5)

Master – Διδάσκαλε, 1320 Didaskale

“And a certain scribe came, and said unto him, Master; (teacher) I will follow thee whithersoever thou goest.” (Matthew 8:19)

Messenger of the Covenant – וּמַלְאַ֨ךְ 4397 ū-mal-’aḵ – הַבְּרִ֜ית 1285 hab-bə-rîṯ

“Behold, I send my messenger, and he will prepare the way before me. And the Lord whom you seek will suddenly come to his temple; and the messenger of the covenant in whom you delight, behold, he is coming, says the LORD of hosts.” (Malachi 3:1)

Messiah – מָשִׁ֣יחַ 4899 mā-šî-aḥ

“Know therefore and understand, that from the going forth of the commandment to restore and to build Jerusalem unto the Messiah the Prince shall be seven weeks, and threescore and two weeks: the street shall be built again, and the wall, even in troublous times.” (Daniel 9:25)

Mighty God – גִּבּ֔וֹר 1368 gib-bō-wr, – אֵ֣ל 410 ’êl

“For to us a child is born, to us a son is given; and the government shall be upon his shoulder, and his name shall be called Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace.” (Isaiah 9:6)

Mighty One – אֲבִ֥יר 46 ’ă-ḇîr

“You shall suck the milk of nations; you shall nurse at the breast of kings; and you shall know that I, the LORD, am your Savior and your Redeemer, the Mighty One of Jacob.” (Isaiah 60:16)

Mine Elect – בְּחִירִ֖י 972 bə-ḥî-rî

“Behold my servant, whom I uphold; mine elect, (My Chosen one) in whom my soul delighteth; I have put my spirit upon him: he shall bring forth judgment to the Gentiles.” (Isaiah 42:1)

Morning Star – πρωϊνός. 4407 prōinos – ἀστὴρ 792 astēr

“I, Jesus, have sent my angel to testify to you about these things for the churches. I am the root and the descendant of David, the bright morning star.” (Revelation 22:16)

Nazarene – Ναζαρέτ· 3478 Nazaret

“And he went and lived in a city called Nazareth, so that what was spoken by the prophets might be fulfilled, that he would be called a Nazarene.” (Matthew 2:23)

Only Begotten – μονογενὴς 3439 monogenēs

No man hath seen God at any time; the only begotten Son, which is in the bosom of the Father, he hath declared him.” (John 1:18)

Our Passover – πάσχα 3957 pascha – ἡμῶν 1473 hēmōn

“Cleanse out the old leaven that you may be a new lump, as you really are unleavened. For Christ, our Passover lamb has been sacrificed.” (1Corinthians 5:7)

Prince of Life – Ἀρχηγὸν 747 Archēgon – ζωῆς 2222 zōēs

“And killed the Prince (author) of life, whom God hath raised from the dead; whereof we are witnesses.” (Acts 3:15)

Prince of Kings – ἄρχων 758 archōn – βασιλέων 935 basileōn

“And from Jesus Christ, who is the faithful witness, and the first begotten of the dead, and the prince (ruler) of the kings of the earth. Unto him that loved us, and washed us from our sins in his own blood.” (Revelation 1:5)

Prince of Peace – שַׂר־ 8269 śar- – שָׁלֽוֹם׃ 7965 šā-lō-wm.

“For to us a child is born, to us a son is given; and the government shall be upon his shoulder, and his name shall be called Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace.” (Isaiah 9:6)

Prophet – προφήτης 4396 prophētēs

“When the people saw the sign that he had done, they said, “This is indeed the Prophet who is to come into the world!” (John 6:14)

Redeemer – גֹּ֣אֲלִי 1350 gō-’ă-lî

“For I know that my Redeemer lives, and at the last he will stand upon the earth.” (Job 19:25)

Resurrection and the Life – ἀνάστασις 386 anastasis – καὶ 2532 kai – ἡ 3588 hē – ζωή· 2222 zōē

“Jesus said to her, “I am the resurrection and the life. Whoever believes in me, though he die, yet shall he live.” (John 11:25)

Rock – πέτρα 4073 petra

“And all drank the same spiritual drink. For they drank from the spiritual Rock that followed them, and the Rock was Christ.” (1Corinthians 10:4)

Root of David – ῥίζα 4491 rhiza – Δαυίδ, – 1138 Dauid

“I, Jesus, have sent my angel to testify to you about these things for the churches. I am the root and the descendant of David, the bright morning star.” (Revelation 22:16)

Rose of Sharon – חֲבַצֶּ֣לֶת 2261 ḥă-ḇaṣ-ṣe-leṯ – הַשָּׁר֔וֹן 8289 haš-šā-rō-wn,

“I am a rose of Sharon, a lily of the valleys.” (Song of Solomon 2:1)

Savior – Σωτὴρ 4990 Sōtēr

“They said to the woman, “It is no longer because of what you said that we believe, for we have heard for ourselves, and we know that this is indeed the Savior of the world.” (John 4:42)

Shepherd – Ποιμένα 4166 Poimena

“For you were straying like sheep, but have now returned to the Shepherd and Overseer of your souls.” (1Peter 2:25)

Shiloh – (שִׁיל֔וֹ) 7886 (šî-lōw,

“The sceptre shall not depart from Judah, nor a lawgiver from between his feet, until Shiloh come; and unto him shall the gathering of the people be.” (Genesis 49:10)

Son of God – Υἱὸν 5207 Huion – Θεοῦ, 2316 Theou

“Since then we have a great high priest who has passed through the heavens, Jesus, the Son of God, let us hold fast our confession.” (Hebrews 4:14)

Son of the Blessed – Υἱὸν 5207 Huion – Εὐλογητοῦ; 2128 Eulogētou

“But he remained silent and made no answer. Again the high priest asked him, “Are you the Christ, the Son of the Blessed?” (Mark 14:61)

Son of David – Υἱὸν 5207 Huion – Δαυὶδ 1138 Dauid

“The book of the genealogy of Jesus Christ, the son of David, the son of Abraham.” (Matthew 1:1)

Son of the Highest – Υἱὸν 5207 Huion – Ὑψίστου 2564 Hypsistou

“He will be great and will be called the Son of the Most High. And the Lord God will give to him the throne of his father David.” (Luke 1:32)

Sun of Righteousness – שֶׁ֣מֶשׁ 8121 še-meš – צְדָקָ֔ה 6666 ṣə-ḏā-qāh,

“But for you who fear my name, the sun of righteousness shall rise with healing in its wings. You shall go out leaping like calves from the stall.” (Malachi 4:2)

The Just One – τοῦ 3588 tou – Δικαίου 1342 Dikaiou

“Which of the prophets have not your fathers persecuted? And they have slain them which shewed before of the coming of the Just (righteous) One; of whom ye have been now the betrayers and murderers.” (Acts 7:52)

True Vine – ἀληθινή, 228 alēthinē – ἄμπελος 288 ampelos

“I am the true vine, and my Father is the vinedresser.” (John 15:1)

The Way, the Truth, and the Life – Ἐγώ εἰμι ἡ ὁδὸς καὶ ἡ ἀλήθεια καὶ ἡ ζωή

“Jesus said to him, “I am the way, and the truth, and the life. No one comes to the Father except through me.” (John 14:6)

Wisdom of God – σοφίαν. 4678 sophian – Θεοῦ 2316 Theou

“But to those who are called, both Jews and Greeks, Christ the power of God and the wisdom of God.” (1Corinthians 1:24)

Wonderful Counselor – פֶּ֠לֶא 6382 pe-le – יוֹעֵץ֙ 3289 yō-w-‘êṣ

“For to us a child is born, to us a son is given; and the government shall be upon his shoulder, and his name shall be called Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace.” (Isaiah 9:6)

Word – Λόγος, 3056 Logos

“In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.” (John 1:1)

In conclusion, we can agree with the apostle Paul:

“Therefore God also has highly exalted Him and given Him a name, which is above every name, that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of those in heaven, and of those on earth, and of those under the earth, and those under the earth, and that every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the father.” (Philippians 2:9-11)

Mr. Kettler has previously published articles in the Chalcedon Report and Contra Mundum. He and his wife Marea attend the Westminster, CO, RPCNA Church. Mr. Kettler is the author of the book defending the Reformed Faith against attacks, titled: The Religion That Started in a Hat. Available at:

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