What does the Bible say about Blasphemy?

What does the Bible say about Blasphemy? By Jack Kettler

In this study, we will seek to understand what word blasphemy means.

As in previous studies, we will look at definitions, scriptures, commentary evidence and confessional support for the glorifying of God in how we live.

“Shew me thy ways, O LORD; teach me thy paths.” (Psalm 25:4)


Question: What is blasphemy? What does it mean to blaspheme?

Answer: To blaspheme is to speak with contempt about God or to be defiantly irreverent. Blasphemy is a verbal or written reproach of God’s name, character, work, or attributes. *


Blasphemy; Speaking evil of God or denying Him some good, which we should attribute to Him. Blasphemy of the Holy Spirit is stating that Jesus did his miracles by the power of the devil (Matthew 12:22-32) and is an unforgivable sin (Mark 3:28-30). Blasphemy arises out of pride (Psalms 73:9; Psalms 73:11), hatred (Psalms 74:18), injustice (Isaiah 52:5), etc. Christ was mistakenly accused of blasphemy (John 10:30-33). **

Words that are synonymous with blasphemy:

Desecration, heresy, abuse, execration, impiety, imprecation, indignity, profanity, profaning, sacrilege, scoffing, swearing, cursing, reviling, railing

Blasphemy refers to defamatory, injurious, or abusive speech against God or against sacred things:


· Taking God’s name in vain is blasphemous

· Mocking the God of the Bible is blasphemous

· Expressions such as “For God’s sakes or heavens sake,” and other derivations such as “Gee,” “Gosh,” and “doggone it,” and many others like these are blasphemous

· Denying that God exists is blasphemous

· Committing idolatry is blasphemous

· Diminishing God’s Word by disobeying it is blasphemous

· Desecration of a church is blasphemous

· Worshipping false gods is blasphemous

· Practicing divination is blasphemous

· Reducing God to a human level is blasphemous

Scriptures on Blasphemy:

“Thou shalt not take the name of the LORD thy God in vain; for the LORD will not hold him guiltless that taketh his name in vain.” (Exodus 20:7)

“And ye shall not swear by my name falsely, neither shalt thou profane the name of thy God: I am the LORD.” (Leviticus 19:12)

“And he that blasphemeth the name of the LORD, he shall surely be put to death, and all the congregation shall certainly stone him: as well the stranger, as he that is born in the land, when he blasphemeth the name of the LORD, shall be put to death.” (Leviticus 24:16)

“But the person who acts defiantly, whether native or resident alien blasphemes the LORD. That person is to be cut off from his people.” (Numbers 15:30 CSB)

“Therefore, son of man, speak to the house of Israel and say to them, Thus says the Lord GOD, Yet in this your fathers have blasphemed Me by acting treacherously against Me.” (Ezekiel 20:27)

“Therefore I tell you, every sin and blasphemy will be forgiven people, but the blasphemy against the Spirit will not be forgiven.” (Matthew 12:31 ESV) Note: The readers of the KJV will notice against the Holy are italicized and not in the Greek text. The KJV translators added these two words. Spirit is a far better translation of πνεύματος (pneumatos) than ghost is.

John Calvin on Matthew 12:31 and blasphemy against the Spirit:

“Therefore, I say to you. This inference ought not to be confined to the clause immediately preceding, but depends on the whole discourse. Having proved that the scribes could not blame him for casting out devils, without opposing the kingdom of God, he at length concludes that it is no light or ordinary offense, but an atrocious crime, knowingly and willingly to pour contempt on the Spirit of God. We have already said, that Christ did not pronounce this decision on the mere words, which they uttered, but on their base and wicked thought.

All sin and blasphemy. As our Lord declares blasphemy against the Holy Ghost to be more heinous than all other sins, it is of importance to inquire what is the meaning of that term. Those who define it to be impenitence may be refuted without any difficulty; for it would have been in vain and to no purpose for Christ to say, that it is not forgiven in the present life. Besides, the word blasphemy cannot be extended indiscriminately to every sort of crimes; but from the comparison which Christ makes, we shall easily obtain the true definition. Why is it said that he who blasphemes against the Spirit is a more heinous sinner than he who blasphemes against Christ? Is it because the majesty of the Spirit is greater, that a crime committed against him must be punished with greater severity? Certainly that is not the reason; for as the fullness of the Godhead (Colossians 2:9) shines in Christ, he who pours contempt upon him overturns and destroys, as far as it lies in his power, the whole glory of God. Now in what manner shall Christ be separated from his Spirit, so that those who treat the Spirit with contempt offer no injury or insult to Christ?

Already we begin to perceive, that the reason why blasphemy against the Spirit exceeds other sins, is not that the Spirit is higher than Christ, but that those who rebel, after that the power of God has been revealed, cannot be excused on the plea of ignorance. Besides, it must be observed, that what is here said about blasphemy does not refer merely to the essence of the Spirit, but to the grace which He has bestowed upon us. Those who are destitute of the light of the Spirit, however much they may detract from the glory of the Spirit, will not be held guilty of this crime. We do not maintain, that those persons are said to pour contempt on the Spirit of God, who oppose his grace and power by hardened malice; and farther we maintain, that this kind of sacrilege is committed only when we knowingly endeavor to extinguish the Spirit who dwells in us.

The reason why contempt is said to be poured on the Spirit, rather than on the Son or the Father, is this. By detracting from the grace and power of God, we make a direct attack on the Spirit, from whom they proceed, and in whom they are revealed to us. Shall any unbeliever curse God? It is as if a blind man were dashing against a wall. But no man curses the Spirit who is not enlightened by him, and conscious of ungodly rebellion against him; for it is not a superfluous distinction. that all other blasphemies shall be forgiven, except that one blasphemy which is directed against the Spirit. If a man shall simply blaspheme against God, he is not declared to be beyond the hope of pardon; but of those who have offered outrage to the Spirit, it is said that God will never forgive them. Why is this, but because those only are blasphemers against the Spirit, who slander his gifts and power, contrary to the conviction of their own mind? Such also is the import of the reason assigned by Mark for the extreme severity of Christ’s threatening against the Pharisees; because they had said that he had the unclean spirit; for in this manner they purposely and maliciously turned light into darkness; and, indeed, it is in the manner of the giants, as the phrase is, to make war against God.

But here a question arises. Do men proceed to such a pitch of madness as not to hesitate, knowingly and willfully, to rush against God? For this appears to be monstrous and incredible. I: reply: Such audacity does indeed proceed from mad blindness, in which, at the same time, malice and virulent rage predominate. Nor is it without reason that Paul says, that though he was

A blasphemer, he obtained pardon, because he had done it ignorantly in his unbelief,
(1 Timothy 1:13 😉

For this term draws a distinction between his sin and voluntary rebellion. This passage refutes also the error of those who imagine that every sin which is voluntary, or which is committed in opposition to the conscience, is unpardonable. On the contrary, Paul expressly limits that sin to the First Table of the Law; and our Lord not less plainly applies the word blasphemy to a single description of sin, and at the same time shows, that it is of a kind, which is directly opposed to the glory of God.

From all that has been said, we may conclude that those persons sin and blaspheme against the Holy Spirit, who maliciously turn to his dishonor the perfections of God, which have been revealed to him by the Spirit, in which His glory ought to be celebrated, and who, with Satan, their leader, are avowed enemies of the glory of God. We need not then wonder if for such sacrilege there is no hope of pardon; for they must be desperate who turn the only medicine of salvation into a deadly venom. Some consider this to be too harsh, and betake themselves to the childish expedient, that it is said to be unpardonable, because the pardon of it is rare and difficult to be obtained. But the words of Christ are too precise to admit of so silly an evasion. It is excessively foolish to argue that God will be cruel if he never pardon a sin, the atrocity of which ought to excite in us astonishment and horror. Those who reason in that manner do not sufficiently consider what a monstrous crime it is, not only to profane intentionally the sacred name of God, but to spit in his face when he shines evidently before us. It shows equal ignorance to object, that it would be absurd if even repentance could not obtain pardon; for blasphemy against the Spirit is a token of reprobation, and hence it follows, that whoever have fallen into it, have been delivered over to a reprobate mind, (Romans 1:28.) As we maintain, that he who has been truly regenerated by the Spirit cannot possibly fall into so horrid a crime, so, on the other hand, we must believe that those who have fallen into it never rise again; nay, that in this manner God punishes contempt of his grace, by hardening the hearts of the reprobate, so that they never have any desire towards repentance.” (1)

False accusations of blasphemy:

“Why doth this man thus speak blasphemies? Who can forgive sins but God only?” (Mark 2:7)

“The Jews answered him, saying, for a good work we stone thee not; but for blasphemy; and because that thou, being a man, makest thyself God.” (John 10:33)

If it had been any other man, it these accusations would be correct. In the case of Jesus, it is not, because He is true God.

Acts of blasphemy:

“Who opposeth and exalteth himself above all that is called God, or that is worshipped; so that he as God sitteth in the temple of God, shewing himself that he is God.” (2 Thessalonians 2:4)

“Of how much sorer punishment, suppose ye, shall he be thought worthy, who hath trodden underfoot the Son of God, and hath counted the blood of the covenant, wherewith he was sanctified, an unholy thing, and hath done despite unto the Spirit of grace?” (Hebrews 10:29)

“And he opened his mouth in blasphemy against God, to blaspheme his name, and his tabernacle, and them that dwell in heaven.” (Revelation 13:6)

Vine’s Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words on blasphemy:

A-1 Noun Strong’s Number: g988 Greek: blasphemia

Blaspheme, Blasphemy, Blasphemer, Blasphemous:

either from blax, “sluggish, stupid,” or, probably, from blapto, “to injure,” and pheme, “speech,” (Eng. “blasphemy”) is so translated thirteen times in the RV, but “railing” in Mat 15:19; Mar 7:22; Eph. 4:31; Col 3:8; 1Ti 6:4; Jud 1:9. The word “blasphemy” is practically confined to speech defamatory of the Divine Majesty. See Note, below.


B-1 Verb Strong’s Number: g987 Greek: blasphemeo

Blaspheme, Blasphemy, Blasphemer, Blasphemous:

“To blaspheme, rail at or revile,” is used

(a) in a general way, of any contumelious speech, reviling, calumniating, railing at, etc., as of those who railed at Christ, e.g., Mat 27:39; Mar 15:29; Luke 22:65 (RV, “reviling”); Luke 23:39;

(b) of those who speak contemptuously of God or of sacred things, e.g., Mat 9:3; Mar 3:28; Rom 2:24; 1Ti 1:20; 6:1; Rev 13:6; 16:9, 11, 21; “hath spoken blasphemy,” Mat 26:65; “rail at,” 2Pe 2:10; Jud 1:8, 10; “railing,” 2Pe 2:12; “slanderously reported,” Rom 3:8; “be evil spoken of,” Rom 14:16; 1Cr 10:30; 2Pe 2:2; “speak evil of,” Tts 3:2; 1Pe 4:4; “being defamed,” 1Cr 4:13. The verb (in the present participial form) is translated “blasphemers” in Act 19:37; in Mar 2:7, “blasphemeth,” RV, for AV, “speaketh blasphemies.”

There is no noun in the original representing the English “blasphemer.” This is expressed either by the verb, or by the adjective blasphemos.


C-1 Adjective Strong’s Number: g989 Greek: blasphemos

Blaspheme, Blasphemy, Blasphemer, Blasphemous:

“Abusive, speaking evil,” is translated “blasphemous,” in Act 6:11, 13; “a blasphemer,” 1Ti 1:13; “railers,” 2Ti 3:2, RV; “railing,” 2Pe 2:11.


Note: As to Christ’s teaching concerning “blasphemy” against the Holy Spirit, e.g., Mat 12:32, that anyone, with the evidence of the Lord’s power before His eyes, should declare it to be Satanic, exhibited a condition of heart beyond Divine illumination and therefore hopeless. Divine forgiveness would be inconsistent with the moral nature of God. As to the Son of Man, in his state of humiliation, there might be misunderstanding, but not so with the Holy Spirit’s power demonstrated. (2)

An excellent theological dictionary article on blasphemy:


Definition. In English “blasphemy” denotes any utterance that insults God or Christ (or Allah, or Muhammed) and gives deeply felt offense to their followers. In several states in the United States and in Britain, blasphemy is a criminal offense, although there have been few prosecution in this century. In Islamic countries generally no distinction is made between blasphemy and heresy, so that any perceived rejection of the Prophet or his message, by Muslims or non-Muslims, is regarded as blasphemous.

The biblical concept is very different. There is no Hebrew word equivalent to the English “blasphemy,” and the Greek root blasphem- [blasfhmevw], which is used fifty-five times in the New Testament, has a wide meaning. In both Testaments the idea of blasphemy as something that offends the religious sensibilities of others is completely absent.

The Old Testament At least five different Hebrew verbs are translated “blaspheme” in English translations. Translators choose “blaspheme” when, for instance, the verbs “curse” (qalal [l;l’q]), “revile” (gadap), or “despise” (herep) are used with God as the object. No special verb is reserved for cursing or insults directed at God.

However, to curse or insult God is an especially grave sin. It can be done by word or by deed. There is little distinction between the sinner who deliberately abuses the name of the Lord (Lev. 24:10-16), and the one who deliberately flouts his commandments (Num. 15:30-31). For both, the death penalty is prescribed. Similarly, the prayer of the Levites in Nehemiah 9 calls “awful blasphemies” all that Israelites did when they made the golden calf (9:18).

David’s flagrant sin with Bathsheba may be called a blasphemy (2 Samuel 12:14), but a more likely translation is that David has “made the enemies of the Lord show utter contempt” (NIV). Instead of testifying by lifestyle to the character of the Lord, David’s action confirms the blasphemous belief of the nations that the Lord is no different from any other national god.

The New Testament. The Greek root blasphem- [blasfhmevw] can be used of strong insults thrown at other people (Mark 15:29; Acts 13:45; Eph. 4:31; 1 Peter 4:4), or even unjust accusations (Rom. 3:8), but it is more usually used of insults offered to God (e.g., Rev. 13:6; 16:9). Jesus is accused of blasphemy for pronouncing forgiveness and for claiming a unique relationship with God (Matt. 26:65; Mark 2:7; John 10:33).

Jesus picks up the Numbers 15 passage about blasphemy in his famous saying about blasphemy against the Holy Spirit (Matt. 12:31-32; Mark 3:28-29; Luke 12:10). Numbers 15:22-31 distinguishes between unintentional sin committed in ignorance (for which forgiveness is possible), and defiant sin, called blasphemy, for which there is no forgiveness. Jesus teaches that the blasphemy for which there is no forgiveness is that against the Holy Spirit; all other blasphemies, particularly those against “the Son of Man,” may be forgiven. Insults thrown at “the Son of Man” may be forgiven because they are committed in ignorance of who he really is: his heavenly glory does not appear on earth. But to ascribe obvious manifestations of the Spirit to the devil’s agency is a much more serious offense not committed in ignorance.

This downgrading of the significance of blasphemy against Christ marks an important difference between Christianity and Islam. Whereas Muslims are bound to defend the honor of the Prophet, for Christians Jesus is the one who says, “The insults of those who insult you have fallen on me” (Rom. 15:3; quoting Psalm 69:9). He deliberately accepts the vilification of others and prays for the forgiveness of those who insult him (Luke 23:34). In this, he sets an example for Christians to follow. According to Peter (Peter 2:19-25), they must accept insult and blasphemy without retaliation, as he did.

There is only one kind of blasphemy that Christians must resist: the blasphemy they will bring on themselves if they cause a fellow believer to stumble through the thoughtless exercise of their freedom (Rom. 14:15-16; 1 Cor. 10:28-30). Stephen Motyer (3)

Westminster Longer Catechism Q. 111-114. The Scriptural proofs are in brackets, and highlighted in yellow. The disciple of Scripture is encouraged to look up the proof texts:

Q. 111. Which is the third commandment?

A. The third commandment is, Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain: for the Lord will not hold him guiltless that taketh his name in vain. [Exodus 20:7]

Q. 112. What is required in the third commandment?

A. The third commandment requires, That the name of God, his titles, attributes, [Matthew 11:9; Deuteronomy 28:58; Psalm 29:2; Psalm 68:4; Revelation 15:3-4] ordinances, [Malachi 1:14] the Word, [Psalm 138:2] sacraments, [1 Corinthians 11:24-25, 28-29] prayer, [1 Timothy 2:8] oaths, [Jeremiah 4:2] vows, [Ecclesiastes 5:2, 4-6] lots, [Acts 1:24, 26] his works, [Job 36:24] and whatsoever else there is whereby he makes himself known, be holily and reverently used in thought, [Malachi 3:16] meditation, [Psalm 8:1, 3-4, 9] word, [Colossians 3:17; Psalm 105:2, 5] and writing; [Psalm 102:18] by an holy profession, [1 Peter 3:15; Micah 4:5] and answerable conversation, [Philippians 1:27] to the glory of God, [1 Corinthians 10:31] and the good of ourselves, [Jeremiah 32:39] and others. [1 Peter 2:12]

Q. 113. What are the sins forbidden in the third commandment?

A. The sins forbidden in the third commandment are, the not using of God’s name as is required; [Malachi 2:2] and the abuse of it in an ignorant, [Acts 17:23] vain, [Proverbs 30:9] irreverent, profane, [Malachi 1:6-7, 12; 3:14] superstitious [1 Samuel 4:3-5; Jeremiah 7:4, 9-10, 14, 31; Colossians 2:20-22] or wicked mentioning or otherwise using his titles, attributes, [2 Kings 18:30, 35; Exodus 5:2; Psalm 139:20] ordinances, [Psalm 50:16-17] or works, [Isaiah 5:12] by blasphemy, [2 Kings 19:22; Leviticus 24:11] perjury; [Zechariah 5:4; 8:17] all sinful cursings, [1 Samuel 17:43; 2 Samuel 16:5] oaths, [Jeremiah 5:7; 23:10] vows, [Deuteronomy 23:18; Acts 23:12, 14] and lots; [Esther 3:7; 9:4; Psalm 22:18] violating of our oaths and vows, if lawful; [Psalm 24:4; Ezekiel 17:16, 18-19] and fulfilling them, if of things unlawful; [Mark 6:26; 1 Samuel 25:22, 32-34] murmuring and quarrelling at, [Romans 9:14, 19-20] curious prying into, [Deuteronomy 29:29] and misapplying of God’s decrees [Romans 3:5, 7] and providences; [Ecclesiastes 8:11; 9:3; Psalm 39] misinterpreting, [Matthew 5:21-22] misapplying, [Ezekiel 13:22] or any way perverting the Word, or any part of it; [2 Peter 3:16; Matthew 22:24-31; 25:28-30] to profane jests, [Isaiah 22:13; Jeremiah 23:34, 36, 38] curious or unprofitable questions, vain janglings, or the maintaining of false doctrines; [1 Timothy 1:4, 6-7; 6:4-5; 20; 2 Timothy 2:14; Titus 3:9] abusing it, the creatures, or anything contained under the name of God, to charms, [Deuteronomy 18:10-14; Acts 19:13] or sinful lusts and practices; [2 Timothy 4:3-4; Romans 13:13-14; 1 Kings 21:9-10] the maligning, [Acts 13:45; 1 John 3:12] scorning, [Psalm 1:1; 2 Peter 3:3] reviling, [1 Peter 4:4] or any wise opposing of God’s truth, grace, and ways; [Acts 13:45-46, 50; 4:18; 19:9; 1 Thessalonians 2:16; Hebrews 10:29] making profession of religion in hypocrisy, or for sinister ends; [2 Timothy 3:5; Matthew 23:14; Matthew 6:1-2, 5, 16] being ashamed of it, [Mark 8:38] or a shame to it, by unconformable, [Psalm 73:14-15] unwise, [1 Corinthians 6:5-6; Ephesians 5:15-17] unfruitful, [Isaiah 5:4; 2 Peter 1:8-9] and offensive walking, [Romans 2:23-24] or backsliding from it. [Galatians 3:1, 3; Hebrews 6:6].

Q. 114. What reasons are annexed to the third commandment?

A. The reasons annexed to the third commandment, in these words, The Lord thy God, and, For the Lord will not hold him guiltless that taketh his name in vain, [Exodus 20:7] are, because he is the Lord and our God, therefore his name is not to be profaned, or any way abused by us; [Leviticus 19:12] especially because he will be so far from acquitting and sparing the transgressors of this commandment, as that he will not suffer them to escape his righteous judgment; [Ezekiel 36:21-23; Deuteronomy 28:58-59; Zechariah 5:2-4] albeit many such escape the censures and punishments of men. [1 Samuel 2:12, 17, 22, 24; 3:13]


1. John Calvin, Calvin’s Commentaries Volume XV1 Harmony of Matthew, Mark, Luke, John, (Grand Rapids, Michigan, Baker Book House, Reprinted 1979), pp. 73-77.

2. W. E. Vine, An Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words, (Iowa Falls, Iowa, Riverside Book and Bible House), p. 123-124.

3. Walter A. Elwell, Editor Baker’s Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology, (Grand Rapids, Michigan, Baker Book House), p. 67.

Mr. Kettler has previously published articles in the Chalcedon Report and Contra Mundum. He and his wife Marea attend the Westminster, CO, RPCNA Church. Mr. Kettler is the author of the book defending the Reformed Faith against attacks, titled: The Religion That Started in a Hat. Available at: http://www.thereligionthatstartedinahat.com/

For more study:

* Got Questions https://www.gotquestions.org/blasphemy-blaspheme.html

** CARM Theological Dictionary https://www.studylight.org/dictionaries/ctd.html


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What does the Bible say about Discipline?

What does the Bible say about Discipline? By Jack Kettler

In this study, we will seek to understand church discipline. What does the Bible say about discipline? How does the process of discipline happen in the church? Some churches use the formula “It’s my way or the highway.” Is this process biblical in light of Matthew 18:15-17? Why is church discipline needed? These questions will be examined in this study.

As in previous studies, we will look at definitions, scriptures, commentary evidence and confessional support for the glorifying of God in how we live.

“Shew me thy ways, O LORD; teach me thy paths.” (Psalm 25:4)


Church discipline

Corrective measures taken church leaders or a congregation regarding a matter of sin in the life of a member, with the goal of the loving restoration of the fallen member, if possible, and the strengthening of the church for the glory of Christ. *


Question: “What does the Bible say about church discipline?”

Answer: Church discipline is the process of correcting sinful behavior among members of a local church body for the purpose of protecting the church, restoring the sinner to a right walk with God, and renewing fellowship among the church members. In some cases, church discipline can proceed all the way to excommunication, which is the formal removal of an individual from church membership and the informal separation from that individual. **

Why Church Discipline?

There are numerous warnings to stay faithful in Scripture and avoid false teachers, unrepentant sinners, especially those who are called brothers.

Warning passages for the church to beware of doctrinal and lifestyle sins:

“For they that are such serve not our Lord Jesus Christ, but their own belly; and by good words and fair speeches deceive the hearts of the simple.” (Romans 16:18)

“And you are arrogant! Ought you not rather to mourn? Let him who has done this be removed from among you.” (1 Corinthians 5:2)

“I wrote unto you in an epistle not to company with fornicators.” (1 Corinthians 5:9)

“But them that are without God judgeth. Therefore put away from among yourselves that wicked person” (1 Corinthians 5:13)

“And this I say, lest any man should beguile you with enticing words.” (Colossians 2:4)

“Now we command you, brethren, in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ that ye withdraw yourselves from every brother that walketh disorderly, and not after the tradition which he received of us.” (2 Thessalonians 3:6)

“Having a form of godliness, but denying the power thereof: from such turn away.” (2 Timothy 3:5)

“But there were false prophets also among the people, even as there shall be false teachers among you, who privily shall bring in damnable heresies, even denying the Lord that bought them, and bring upon themselves swift destruction.” (2 Peter 2:1)


The above passages speak of false believers, false prophets, and immoral brothers. When encountering falsehood like this, the apostle tells us to “turn away,” “withdraw yourselves,” and to “put away.” For example, in the Corinthian Church, you had the case of the sexually immoral brother whom Paul said, “Therefore put away from among yourselves that wicked person” (1 Corinthians 5:13). How do you do this? Is there a biblical process to follow to keep order in the church?

There is a biblical process. The following Scriptures and commentary provide a way for discipline to happen. In addition, why discipline should happen. First, we should consider the teaching of our Lord:

From Scripture:

“Moreover if thy brother shall trespass against thee, go and tell him his fault between thee and him alone: if he shall hear thee, thou hast gained thy brother. But if he will not hear thee, then take with thee one or two more, that in the mouth of two or three witnesses every word may be established. And if he shall neglect to hear them, tell it unto the church: but if he neglects to hear the church, let him be unto thee as a heathen man and a publican.” (Matthew 18:15-17)

Matthew Poole’s Commentary on Matthew 18:15-17 describes the process of discipline:

“Ver. 15-17. Our Saviour very appositely addeth this to his former discourse concerning avoiding offences, that none might think that by the former doctrine he had made void the law, Leviticus 19:17, which commanded all in any wise to rebuke their neighbour, and not to suffer sin upon him, pretending that it was their duty in some cases to offend any person by that law. He here telleth them that he would not be so understood, as if they might not tell offenders of their sins for fear of offending them, this had been to have withheld charity from their souls under a presence of charity. Only in these reproofs we must keep an order, which order he here prescribes.

1. Doing it privately, between them and him alone.

2. If that had not its effect, then taking two or three with them.

3. If that also proved ineffectual, then telling it to the church.

4. If that he would not hear the church, then, let him be unto thee (saith Christ) as a heathen and a publican.

If thy brother shall trespass against thee. By brother here he meaneth any Christian; for what hath the church to do to judge those that are without? 1 Corinthians 5:12.

Trespass against thee. Some interpret this of offences done so privately, that none else knoweth them but one single person; but it is objected, that then there needed no going to him, much less were there need of any witnesses, for they could prove nothing. Others therefore understand the precept of private injuries, which are in man’s power to forgive, Luke 17:3. Others think such injuries are primarily intended, but yet the precept is not to be restrained to them, but to be understood of all offences, whether against God, ourselves, or our neighbours; and that our Saviour useth this term against thee only to distinguish the offences he is here speaking of from public scandals; for, 1 Timothy 5:20, it appeareth to be the will of God, that public and open sinners should be rebuked before all, that others may fear. The rule therefore seemeth to be given concerning private miscarriages; not such only as are done in the sight or hearing of a single person, but such as are not the matter of public fame, nor openly committed before a multitude, but being committed more secretly, are come only to the knowledge of some particular person or persons. In such cases it is the will of God, not that we should blazon and publish them, but, being certain that any Christian hath so offended, it is our duty first to go to him, and tell him of it; that is, not only tell him what thou knowest, or hast heard in matter of fact, that he hath spoken or done, but show him also the sinfulness of it.

If he shall hear thee, thou hast gained thy brother; that is, if he confesseth the sin, and be brought to a sight of it, a sorrow for it, and a resolution against it for the time to come, thou hast gained the soul of thy brother.

But if he will not hear thee, if he either denieth the matter of fact, that he did such a thing, or (admitting that) standeth to justify the fact, as what he might do, then take with thee one or two more, that in the mouth of two or three witnesses every word may be established: one or two more, either such as may be of more authority with him, whose words may probably be of more weight than thine with him, or who may witness the matter of fact if it be denied, or at least witness by charitable admonition of him, and his contumacy, if he refuseth to hearken to thee, and to repent and reform. What was the law of God in civil and judicial causes, Deuteronomy 19:15?

God would have observed in ecclesiastical causes: One witness shall not rise up against a man for any iniquity, or for any sin, in any sin that he sinneth: at the mouth of two witnesses, or at the mouth of three witnesses, shall the matter be established. And so the words in Matthew should be translated, or at least understood; every word, that is, every matter, be confirmed.

And if he shall neglect to hear them; either refuse to speak with them, or to suffer them to speak with him; or, hearing them with his ears, if he persists to deny the fact, or to justify the fact, as if it were no sin, or go on still in the same course; (all these things are to be understood by the term of not hearing); if he shall not hear them, tell it to the church. That the term church is a noun of multitude is evident, and therefore cannot be understood of any particular person. Some would by the church here understand the political magistrate; but as this sense is embraced by very few, so it is very improbable that our Saviour should send Christians in that age to the civil magistrates, when they were all great haters and persecutors of the Christian religion, especially in cases that were not punishable by the judges; for no deliberate person will say, that the offences mentioned in this text were all of that nature as a civil judicature might take notice of them. Others say, that by the church is here meant the Jewish court called the Sanhedrim, which had a mixed cognizance, both of civil and ecclesiastical causes. There are three prejudices against this:

1. That the Jewish court was never in Scripture called’ Ekklhsia.

2. That it is not probable that our Saviour would direct Christians to go to the Jewish courts in such cases.

3. That the Sanhedrim was too great a court to be troubled with all scandals, though they did take cognizance of some things in religion, which were of a grand concern; such as blasphemy, idolatry, false prophets, &c.

Others therefore understand it of the Christian church. Against this opinion there is this great prejudice, that there was no such thing in being at that time; but I take this to be a lighter objection than those against the two other opinions:

a) Because we need not understand our Saviour speaking with relation to the present time, but the time to come, and giving laws which should take place and abide from the gathering of the Christian church to the end of the world.

b) Nor is it necessary that we should take the term church here in the strict sense, in which it is most generally used in the Scriptures of the New Testament for the general notion of the word is only a company of people called together; and in this sense, Tell the church, is no more than, Tell the multitude, make his crime more public: now what that multitude was which our Saviour meant, would easily be understood when the churches came to be formed.

But the next verse will make it more plain; Matthew 18:18, Verily I say unto you, Whatsoever ye shall bind on earth shall be bound in heaven, &c. By the church then must be meant those who had power to bind and loose. Now though at this time there was no particular church formed, yet there were some who had a power to bind and loose. Christ had given such a power to his apostles. These were the present church, and at this time in being. They were afterwards to constitute particular churches, to whom, (when constituted), in force of this precept, such offences were to be told. There are yet further disputes, whether this offence and contumacy be to be told only to the rulers, or to the multitude. I say, to the whole church, but first to the rulers, then by them to the multitude, not to judge of it, but for their consent in casting a person out of the communion of the church. Thus the incestuous person was first accused to Paul, then cast out by the consent of the whole church, 1 Corinthians 5:3-5. For it is unreasonable to think that people should deny communion to any without knowing a justifiable cause; and to no purpose for rulers in a church to cast one out of its communion with whom the members will have communion.

If he neglect to hear the church, let him be unto thee as an heathen man and a publican; that is, esteem him as a vile person, for so they esteemed all heathens and publicans. How far this could reach beyond having an intimacy of civil communion with them, and a communion with them in the sacrament, I cannot understand; for as Christians were licensed to a civil commerce with heathens and publicans, so neither were heathens and publicans ever, that we read of in holy writ, denied the benefit of their prayers, and hearing the apostles preach. I am very well satisfied, that the primitive church did not deny to persons excommunicated liberty to be present at the prayers of the church, but it was long after the apostles’ times, and whether grounded upon any practice of theirs I much doubt. Christians had a liberty to pray for any who had not sinned the sin unto death: that they might not be present at such prayers I cannot learn from any thing in holy writ.” (1)


The strategy “It’s our way or the highway” is the easy way out. It short-circuits the process just seen in the Matthew passage. In the next passage, Paul the Church in Thessalonica has no company with those who reject the apostolic word.

“And if any man obey not our word by this epistle, note that man, and have no company with him, that he may be ashamed.” (2 Thessalonians 3:14)

Barnes’ Notes on the Bible on 2 Thessalonians 3:14 explains this passage:

“And if any man obey not our word by this epistle – Margin, “or signify that man by an epistle.” According to the marginal reading, this would mean, “signify, mark out, or designate that man to me by an epistle.” The difference is merely whether we unite the words “by the epistle” with what goes before, or what follows. The Greek would admit of either construction (Winer, p. 93), but it seems to me that the construction in the text is the correct one, because:

(1) The requirement was to proceed to discipline such a man by withdrawing from him,

(2) In order to do this it was not necessary that the case should be made known to Paul, for there was no supposable difficulty in it, and the effect would be only needless delay;

(3) Paul regarded the right of discipline as residing in the church itself, and did not require that cases should be referred to him to determine; see the notes on 1 Corinthians 5:2-4.

(4) Though the Greek will admit of either construction, yet it rather favors this; see Oldhhausen, in loc. Note that man. The word here used, means to mark; to sign; to note with marks; and the idea is, set such a mark upon him that he shall be shunned; that is, withdraw all Christian fellowship from him.

And have no company with him – The Greek word here means, to mix up together; then to mingle together with; to have contact with. The idea is that they were not to mingle with him as a Christian brother, or as one of their own number. They were not to show that they regarded him as a worthy member of the church, or as having a claim to its privileges. The extent of their discipline was, that they were to withdraw from him; see the 2 Thessalonians 3:6 note, and Matthew 18:17 note; compare 2 John 1:10-11.” (2)

The next passage from Timothy does not contradict Matthew it highlights one part of the process of discipline.

“Them that sin rebuke before all, that others also may fear.” (1 Timothy 5:20)

Gill’s Exposition of the Entire Bible on 1 Timothy 5:20 illuminates this passage:

“Them that sin rebuke before all,…. This the apostle adds to the above rule, to show that he was far from screening wicked ministers, or elders, guilty of flagitious crimes, and gross enormities: for these words, though they may be applied unto, and may hold good of all offenders, that are members of churches; yet they seem chiefly to regard elders, even such who sin, who continue to sin, who live in sin, in some notorious sin or another; which is evident and known, to the great scandal of religion, and dishonour of the Gospel: and so some read the words, “them that sin before all, rebuke”; not only admonish once and again, but degrade them from their office, and withdraw from them, as from other disorderly persons, and cut them off, and cast them out of the church, and that in a public manner; and so the Arabic version renders it, “before the congregation”: which was done only in case of notorious offences: and which rule is observed by the Jews, and runs thus (h);

“a wise man, an elder in wisdom, and so a prince, or the father of the sanhedrim, that sins, they do not excommunicate him (with Niddui) always “publicly”, unless he does as Jeroboam the son of Nebat and his companions; but when he sins other sins, they chastise him privately.”’

The end is, that others also may fear; that other elders, or other members of the church, or both, may fear to do the same evil things, lest they incur the same censure and punishment: the Syriac version reads, “other men”; and the Arabic version, “the rest of the people”. The phrase seems to be taken out of Deuteronomy 13:11.” (3)

Now for an excellent dictionary article on the subject of discipline. It is an ample overview of discipline:


The Old Testament Concept of Discipline. The notion of the discipline of God, and eventually the concept of the community and its leaders effecting God’s discipline, derives from the notion of domestic discipline (Deut. 21:18-21; 22:15; 23:13). God is portrayed as a father who guides his child (i.e., the nation, more rarely an individual) to do right by the experience of physical suffering (Deut. 8:5; Prov. 3:11-12). Key ideas include “chasten/chastise” (Lev. 26:18; Psalm 94:12; Hosea 7:12), “discipline” (Lev. 26:23; Deut. 4:36; Prov. 12:1), and “reproof” (Job 5:17; Prov. 6:23). While God generally administers discipline to the nation, the community through its leaders is charged with the responsibility to administer the legal code for individuals. This code deals almost exclusively with severe offenses that require the “cutting off” (normally, education) of the offender and gives few details concerning lesser offenses and remedial disciplinary measures. Furthermore, because Israel does not yet perceive itself in the modern (or even New Testament) sense as a religious community within a larger society, it is difficult to detect religious discipline as distinct from the Old Testament legal code. The seeds of accountability among the faithful may be seen in several strands of the tradition: removal from the assembly for ritual impurity (Exod. 12:14-20; Lev 17:3-9); standards for the evaluation of prophets (Deut. 13:1-5; 18:15-22); and admonitions to reprove other adults (Prov. 5:12-13; 9:7; 10:10; 19:25).

The New Testament and Personal Discipline. The notion of discipline as familial chastisement remains in the New Testament (Eph. 6:4; 2 Tim 2:25; Heb. 12:5-11). In addition, the concept is derived from Hellenistic athletics of the Christian life as “training” for righteousness (1 Col 9:24-27; 1 Tim 4:7-8; Heb. 5:14). Akin to these notions is the recurrent promise that instruction, submission to others, and experiences of pain will prepare the believer for greater righteousness and heavenly reward (Rom 5:3-5; 2 Cor. 5:16-18; 2 Tim 3:16; 1 Peter 2:18-21).

Community Discipline in Judaism and the Early Church. Community discipline was characteristic of Christian groups in the New Testament period. Paul, for example, probably borrowed some notions from Jewish groups like the Pharisees of whose disciplinary procedures he was himself a recipient. These systems of discipline developed during the intertestamental period as reform movements among the Jews, who developed ways to establish and regulate the boundaries between themselves and outsiders.

The Qumran sectaries developed an elaborate system of penalties intended to safeguard the purity and order of the community. This included a formal reproof procedure, short-term reduction of food allowance, exclusion from ritual meals, and permanent expulsion. Rabbinic traditions suggest that the Pharisees commonly imposed a “ban,” a temporary state of social isolation imposed for deviation from ritual purity laws or for heretical views and designed to recall the offender to full participation in the community. The right to put someone under the ban was originally limited to the Sanhedrin, but some time before the destruction of the temple it was extended to groups of scribes acting together. Rabbinic sources are not clear with respect to complete expulsion from Pharisaic communities in the New Testament era, but it is reasonable to assume that unrepentant banned persons and heretics like Christians would incur more severe judgment. Paul himself five times received a severe form of punishment administered by the synagogue for heresy, the “forty lashes minus one” (2 Cor. 11:24). The number of lashes was reduced from the forty prescribed in Deuteronomy 25:2-3, presumably in order to safeguard against excessive punishment.

Luke 17:3-4 may represent the seed of an originally interpersonal “reproof, apology, forgiveness” formula that occurs in expanded form for community action in Matthew 18:15-17. The community becomes involved through its leaders when personal confrontation is ineffective; community action in the form of expulsion is a last resort. This deceptively simple formula combines redemptive purpose and caution with firm resolve in the process of community accountability, and it appears to be the basis of later New Testament practice.

Community Discipline in New Testament Churches. There is insufficient material to establish a “program” or “system” of community discipline for the New Testament period or even for the Pauline churches. It is possible, however, to gain some insights into disciplinary practice in the early Christian churches by examining key Pauline texts for evidence of procedural elements, culpable behaviors, and intended effects.

Galatians 6:1-5 suggests that the first step in correction of an erring believer is personal, private, and gentle (cf. 2 Col 2:5-11; Eph. 4:29-32; Col. 3:12-13; 1 Thess. 5:14-15). The stress on humility and readiness to forgive on the part of the person who admonishes recalls the teaching of Jesus (Matt. 7:1-5; 18:21-35). The notions of self-searching censure and eagerness to effect heartfelt reconciliation, practically nonexistent in Qumran and rabbinic sources, are pervasive in Paul’s letters. Indeed, Paul’s disciplinary practices are convincing as remedial rather than punitive measures only to the extent that they are infused from start to finish with a pure desire for the good of the offender.

Some offenses, or the stubbornness of some offenders, require that the wider community of believers and its leaders become involved. The command to “take special note of” (2 Thess. 3:14) those who are disobedient may be understood as a command to “keep written records concerning” such persons (cf. “watch out for” dissenters, Rom. 16:17). This formal element, employed at Qumran, may have been appropriate in the case of more serious offenses, especially if the accumulation of witnesses would have a bearing on further action. “Rebuke” or “refutation” is a common term in the Pastoral Epistles, which may pertain more to doctrinal correction by community leaders (1 Tim. 5:20; 2 Tim. 2:25-26; 4:2; Titus 1:9 Titus 1:13; 2:15). Either “marking” or “rebuking” on the part of community leaders may constitute “witnesses” as required in the case of divisive persons in Titus 3:10-11 and in the case of elders in 1 Timothy 5:19. Paul equates warnings with witnesses when he writes of his impending third visit to the Corinthians (2 Cor. 13:1-2). It is not clear whether warnings could be construed as witnesses ex post facto, but this may have been an intentional flexibility designed to avoid the legal elaborations of the Qumran sectaries and Pharisees. It also allowed the apostle and his delegates to “troubleshoot” freely with the immature and often contentious local communities.

A survey of the key passages does not strongly support the view that disciplinary action becomes increasingly centralized and formalized through the New Testament period. Rather, it appears that a pattern exists wherein jurisdiction rises in the community hierarchy according to the severity of the offense. Thus we observe that commonly occurring misbehavior is handled by all believers individually (Gal. 6:1-5; and parallels); warnings are administered generally by the community (Rom. 16:17; 2 Thess. 3:6-15); the factious and elders are disciplined by apostolic delegates (1 Tim 5:19-22; 2 Tim 2:25-26; Titus 3:10-11); and the most serious cases are taken up by the apostle himself (2 Cor. 13:1-2; 1 Tim. 1:19-20; probably 1 Col. 5:3-4; cf. Acts 5:1-11; 8:20-24). Admittedly, the evidence is too sparse to insist on a rigid structure. It is equally possible that, as in the case of Qumran, the group acted through its local community leaders when problems were brought to their attention, and higher authorities like Paul or his delegates acted when they deemed it appropriate. As in the case of the witness-warning sequence, a flexible adaptation of contemporary Jewish practice fit the dynamic spirit of the movement and the occasional aberrations of its local leadership.

When an individual did not respond to warning(s) or committed a serious offense, it became necessary to effect social isolation. The expressions used in the New Testament to convey this idea do not specify what is meant. Matthew 18:17 commands the community to treat the offender “as a pagan or a tax collector.” Romans 16:17 tells believers to “watch out” for wrongdoers; 1 Corinthians 5:11 and 2 Thessalonians 3:14 enjoin, “do not associate” with offenders; 2 Thessalonians 3:6 commands, “keep away from” the disobedient. First Corinthians 5:11 is more specific in instructing believers not to eat with those under discipline (cf. 2 John 10-11). This recollects the Pharisaic ban, under which the offender was cut off socially from all but his immediate family. As in the case of the ban, the individual feels ashamed (2 Thess. 3:14) and, when proven repentant (it is not clear how), is welcomed back “as a brother” (2 Thess. 3:15; cf. 2 Cor. 2:5-11; Gal. 6:1).

In several instances, it appears that Paul goes beyond measures intended to recall erring individuals to a final expulsion from the community. The key text in this regard is 1 Corinthians 5:1-5, where Paul responds to a case of incest by commanding, “hand this man over to Satan,” an expression employed similarly in 1 Timothy 1:20. It is clear that the early church understood the realm of Satan to be everywhere outside the fellowship of believers (2 Cor. 4:4; Gal 1:4; Eph. 2:2) and that Paul’s expression here denotes expulsion from the community. That the sentence is reformatory is confirmed by the fact that Paul ends the pronouncement in 1 Corinthians 5:5 with the express intent that the offender’s spirit may be “saved in the day of the Lord”; similarly, 1 Timothy 1:20 notes that “Hymenaeus and Alexander were handed over to Satan to be taught not to blaspheme.” The phrase in 1 Corinthians 5:5, “so the sinful nature may be destroyed,” is ambiguous. It almost certainly denotes physical suffering, but it is unclear whether the sufferer’s life will be spared by repentance.

Behaviors Subject to Discipline. Doctrinal deviations that create division in the community are a problem for Paul (1 Cor. 1:10-11; 11:18-19; cf. Heb. 12:15), and the disciplinary measures in Romans 16:17 and 2 Corinthians 13:1-2 appear to respond to division caused by heterodoxy (cf. Gal. 5:2-12 ). The Pastoral Epistles are dominated by this concern and 1 Timothy 1:20 is a clear case in point. The danger of heresy and resultant factions to the integrity of local communities and the movement as a whole is obvious. It is not clear, however, to what extent aberrant views that did not cause splits could be tolerated. Moral deviations are in view in the two most lengthy passages, 2 Thessalonians 3:6-15 and 1 Corinthians 5:1-13 (1 Tim. 5:19-22; is ambiguous cf. James 5:19-20; 1 John 5:16-17). The charge that some were “idle” in Thessalonica is taken by many to denote inactivity in expectation of an imminent parousia, but it is more likely that Paul’s instruction reflects a social situation typical of a large port city, where many laborers were inactive for periods of time and dependent on patrons. Within the community of believers, some appear to have begun to presume upon the Christian goodness of patrons, and the system was in danger of devolving into freeloading, resentment, and division (perhaps echoed in 1 Cor. 11:18-19). In 1 Corinthians 5, Paul is obviously concerned about porneia [porneiva], sexual sin (vv. 1, 9, 11), but he also condemns any “so-called” brother (cf. simply “brother” in 2 Thess. 3:15) who is “greedy, or is an idolater, reviler, drunkard, or robber” (v. 11 NRSV). The fact that the list is expanded in 6:9-10 with special attention to sexual and property values suggests that it is not random, after the fashion of contemporary moralists, but is consciously directed at the sins of Corinth. These are of course not the only offenses subject to discipline (cf. Gal. 5:19-21), but they are particularly dangerous to the Corinthians. Although the list does not specify the extent of the sin, it does convey a very strict moral accountability. The reason for this ethical rigorism is implied in Paul’s allusion to Deuteronomy 17:7 in 5:13, “Expel the wicked man from among you.” The opposite of wickedness for Paul is not cultic purity but holiness in the sense of the Spirit-controlled life of each member of the unified community. Deviation from holiness will retard the growth of the entire body, or “leaven the lump.”

Effective Community Discipline. For the individual offender, the New Testament practice is clearly intended to produce repentance in an atmosphere of support and forgiveness. For the community, to hold its members accountable through disciplinary measures will maintain the moral integrity of the group. All of these principles are present at least to some extent in the contemporary Jewish practices that were apparently adapted by the primitive church, albeit in a less systematized form. The unique and potentially potent aspect of the New Testament concept of discipline is the infusion of Christ-like love into disciplinary practice. Philippians 2:1-5, although it does not address discipline directly, expresses concisely the principle behind the scattered references on the subject. The incentive of love, the sharing of the Spirit, the humble attitude that is, the mind of Christ is that which makes it possible to hold another person accountable. Thus the key to effective discipline is its reflexive element. The one who holds another accountable is first accountable to be a loving person. When this is true of a community of believers, isolation of an offender will be a compelling remedial force; the community’s power to persuade or to punish brings a person back into obedient fellowship. It is the community’s ability to demonstrate love in its Spirit-transformed living that constitutes a compellingly attractive force. Thomas E. Schmidt (4)

From the historic Westminster Confession of Faith on discipline:

Chapter XXX – Of Church Censures

III. Church censures are necessary, for the reclaiming and gaining of offending brethren, for deterring of others from the like offenses, for purging out of that leaven which might infect the whole lump, for vindicating the honor of Christ, and the holy profession of the Gospel, and for preventing the wrath of God, which might justly fall upon the Church, if they should suffer His covenant, and the seals thereof, to be profaned by notorious and obstinate offenders.

IV. For the better attaining of these ends, the officers of the Church are to proceed by admonition; suspension from the sacrament of the Lord’s Supper for a season; and by excommunication from the Church; according to the nature of the crime, and demerit of the person.

In conclusion:

What if there is a false witness against a brother, see (Psalm 27:12)? Bearing false witness is warned against in God’s law, (Exodus 20:16). Do the accused have rights to be heard and make a defense? See *** below for a Presbyterian book of church order and how to conduct a biblical trial that provides for both the accused and the accuser biblical protection.

As a personal note, I have been involved in a case of church discipline where I brought charges against a person for holding false doctrine. The case made it to the presbytery (regional) level of the church since the local church where this happened was unable to handle the case properly and needed help from the larger church body. The trial was avoided when the presbytery appointed advisors to work with the local church session (elders) and the person accused. It was not a fun process, but there was a process, which avoided the situation getting out of hand and causing disruption in the local church.

Finally, the objective of discipline is always the restoration of the sinner:

“To deliver such an one unto Satan for the destruction of the flesh, that the spirit may be saved in the day of the Lord Jesus.” (1 Corinthians 5:5).

Quotes on discipline:

“There is no purpose in having a basis or a confession of faith unless it is applied. So we must assert the element of discipline as being essential to the true life of the church. And what calls itself a church which does not believe in discipline, and does not use it and apply it, is therefore not a true church.” (5)

“Discipline which is so inflexible as to leave no place for repentance and reconciliation has ceased to be truly Christian; for it is no less a scandal to cut off the penitent sinner from all hope of re-entry into the comfort and security of the fellowship of the redeemed community than it is to permit flagrant wickedness to continue unpunished in the Body of Christ.” (6)

“The principal use of this public discipline is not for the offender himself, but for the Church. It exceedingly tends to deter others from the like crimes, and so to keep the congregation and their worship pure. Seneca could say, “He who excuses present evils transmits them to posterity.” And elsewhere, “He who spares the guilty harms the good.” (7)


1. Matthew Poole, Matthew Poole’s Commentary on the Holy Bible, Matthew, Vol. 3, (Peabody, Massachusetts, Hendrickson Publishers, 1985), p. 85-86.

2. Albert Barnes, THE AGES DIGITAL LIBRARYCOMMENTARY, Barnes’ Notes on the Bible, 2 Thessalonians, p. 3818-3819.

3. John Gill, Exposition of the Old and New Testaments, 1 Timothy, 9 Volumes, (Grace Works, Multi-Media Labs), 2011, p. 92-93.

4. Walter A. Elwell, Editor Baker’s Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology, (Grand Rapids, Michigan, Baker Book House), pp. 177-180.

5. Martyn Lloyd-Jones, What is an Evangelical? (Carlisle, Pennsylvania, The Banner of Truth Trust, 1992), p. 83.

6. Philip Hughes, 2 Corinthians, (Grand Rapids, Michigan, Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1962), p. 66-67.

7. Richard Baxter, The Reformed Pastor, (Carlisle, Pennsylvania, Banner of Truth Trust Chapter 2, Section 5), p. 98.

Mr. Kettler has previously published articles in the Chalcedon Report and Contra Mundum. He and his wife Marea attend the Westminster, CO, RPCNA Church. Mr. Kettler is the author of the book defending the Reformed Faith against attacks, titled: The Religion That Started in a Hat. Available at: http://www.thereligionthatstartedinahat.com/

For more study:

* http://www.rebecca-writes.com/theological-terms-in-ao/

** https://www.gotquestions.org/church-discipline.html

The Constitution of the Reformed Presbyterian Church of North America https://reformedpresbyterian.org/dow…/…/constitution2010.pdf

*** The Book of Discipline

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-1

I. Definitions, Principles, and General Disciplinary Action . . . E-2

1. The Scriptural Foundation and Basic Principles of

Church Discipline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .E-2

2. Dealing with Sin in the Church—Personal Responsibility . . . . E-3

3. Dealing with Sin in the Church—Corporate Responsibility . . . E-4

4. The Imposition of Church Censures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .E-5

5. Rights of Appeal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .E-7

6. Repentance, Forgiveness, and Restoration after Censure . . . E-8

II. Special Disciplinary Process of Formal Trial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-9

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-9

1. Parties and Jurisdiction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-9

2. Instituting Judicial Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-10

3. The Trial of the Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-12

4. Removal of a Case from a Lower to a Higher Court . . . E-15

Church Discipline: The Missing Mark by R. Albert Mohler https://www.the-highway.com/discipline_Mohler.html

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Can Women be teachers, elders, and ministers in the Church?

Can Women be teachers, elders, and ministers in the Church? By Jack Kettler

In this study, we will seek to understand what the Scriptures teach regarding women and the biblical injunctions for them not to be elders or ministers in Christ’s church. As in previous studies, we will look at scriptures, commentary evidence and confessional support for the glorifying of God in how we live.

“Shew me thy ways, O LORD; teach me thy paths.” (Psalm 25:4)

New Testament Church Offices:

Presbuteros, (elders, bishops, overseers) Diakonos, (deacons)

The English word “priest” comes from the Greek word (presbuteros). The priests (presbuteroi) are known today as “presbyters” or “elders.” The words bishops, elders, presbyters are used interchangeably, see, (Acts 20:17-28; 1 Peter 5:1 1 Peter 5:2; Philippians 1:1; 1 Timothy 3:2).

The New Testament offices listed above have their roots in the Old Testament Israel’s system of priests and elders along with the patriarchs. In regards to Old Testament priests, Aaron and his sons were called by God to serve as Levitical priests. As will be seen this calling was limited to Aaron’s sons and has implications for New Testament Church offices.

How did the New Testament offices arrive? The roots of the New Testament offices have their beginning in the Old Testament.

For example, from the Baker’s Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology on elders:

“The New Testament. The office of elder in the New Testament church cannot be fully understood without the background of the Old Testament local elder, an office still functioning in New Testament Judaism with duties pertaining to discipline and leadership (cf. Luke 7:3 ; and the implications of Matt 10:17; and John 9:22 ). The first Christians were Jewish and the office was familiar to them. Thus, Luke did not need to explain his first reference to Christian elders in Acts 11:30.

New Testament elders (presbyteroi [presbuvtero]) are also called bishops (episkopoi [ejpivskopo]) without implying any essential difference in the office referred to. In Acts 20:17, 28 and Tit 1:5, 7 the two names are used interchangeably. Also the requirements for the office of the elders and bishops are very similar (cf. Titus 1:5-9; and 1 Tim 3:1-7). The term “elder” stresses the connection with the age of the office bearer, while the term “bishop” emphasizes the nature of the task that is to be done. A distinction is made (in 1 Tim 5:17) between those elders who rule well, especially those who labor in the preaching and teaching (who are now called ministers), and others (who are now referred to as elders and whose full-time task is directing the affairs of the church).” (1)

Who are and what is an Old Testament Patriarch?


“pa’-tri-ark, patriarches). The word occurs in the New Testament in application to Abraham (Hebrews 7:4), to the sons of Jacob (Acts 7:8, 9), and to David (Acts 2:29). In Septuagint it is used as the equivalent of the head of the fathers’ house, or of a tribe (1 Chronicles 24:31; 27:32; 2 Chronicles 26:12). Commonly now the term is used of the persons whose names appear in the genealogies and covenant-histories in the periods preceding Moses (Gen 5; 11, histories of Noah, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, etc.; compare “patriarchal dispensation”).” (2)

The Patriarchs:

Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob were patriarchs as were the heads of the tribes of Israel were Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Zebulon, Issachar, Dan, Gad, Asher, Naphtali, Benjamin, and Joseph’s sons Ephraim and Manasseh.

The reader will notice that the priests and patriarchs were all men. Patriarchy in the Old Testament was a system where males exercise main power and the principal roles of leadership, and moral authority.

Deborah a prophetess (Judges 4:4) and Esther in the Old Testament were individual cases of women who were in influential leadership roles. These individual cases do not invalidate the norm of male leadership in the Old Covenant system. Prophets in the Old Testament functioned external of the governing body of elders and priests. The prophets were sent to rebuke the leaders of Israel or the nation itself.

This section of the study will look at the Old Testament office of the priesthood and its implications for the question of women elders and ministers.

What do the Scriptures say regarding the priesthood?

Old Testament priesthood was restricted to the sons of Aaron and was perpetual:

“And thou shalt gird them with girdles, Aaron and his sons, and put the bonnets on them: and the priest’s office shall be theirs for a perpetual statute: and thou shalt consecrate Aaron and his sons.” (Exodus 29:9) (Underlining emphasis mine)

“And thou shalt put upon Aaron the holy garments, and anoint him, and sanctify him; that he may minister unto me in the priest’s office. And thou shalt bring his sons, and clothe them with coats: And thou shalt anoint them, as thou didst anoint their father that they may minister unto me in the priest’s office: for their anointing shall surely be an everlasting (‘olam) priesthood throughout their generations.” (Exodus 40:13–15)


The Hebrew word ‘olam (everlasting) can have a temporal aspect ascribed to it. It can be used regarding ordinances in the Older Covenant that were to be kept by the people of Israel, which were not carried over into the New Covenant Church practice in their Older Covenant forms. The outward Old Covenant forms changed, the substance of the forms did not. Said another way, there are discontinuities and continuities between covenants. The temporal aspect was the forms changed. The everlasting aspect was the substance did not change. In truth, there are significant discontinuities and continuities in redemptive history when moving from the Older Covenant into the New Covenant era. To illustrate this, Saturday/Sunday Sabbath practice, circumcision/baptism, Passover/communion, and priesthood/elder pastor changes.

Besides, there is a fundamental change in the Old Covenant high priesthood because of Christ Jesus and His role as the only priest after the order of Melchisedec. Instead of many high priests, there is now only one high priest, the Lord Jesus Christ. From many high priests to one is a critical discontinuity. One continuity going into the New Covenant is the continued leadership role of men.

The next passage regarding Aaron’s sons carries the death penalty for its violation:

“But only you and your sons can serve as priests at the altar and in the most holy place. Your work as priests is a gift from me, and anyone else who tries to do that work must be put to death.” (Numbers 18:7CEV)

Gill’s Exposition of the Entire Bible provides valuable information on Numbers 18:7:

“Therefore, thou and thy sons with thee shall keep your priest’s office, observe all the duties of it, and keep out others from intruding into it: for everything of the altar: both of incense and of burnt offering with respect to burning incense on the one, and offering sacrifices on the other; both were to be done by priests, and by no other: and within the vail; in the most holy place, where the high priest entered but once a year, and he only with incense, and the blood of sacrifices, see Hebrews 9:7, and ye shall serve; do all the business that is to be done at either altar, whether in the court, or in the holy place, and whatsoever is to be done in the most holy place within the vail: I have given your priest’s office unto you as a service of gift; it was not what they had taken to themselves of their own will, or had thrust themselves into, but what the Lord had called them to, and had freely invested them with, see Hebrews 5:4, and the stranger that cometh nigh shall be put to death; any common person, as the Targums of Onkelos and Jonathan; any Israelite, one that is a stranger from the priests, though a Levite, as Aben Ezra; such an one might not come either to the altar of burnt offering to offer any sacrifice upon it, or the altar of incense, to burn incense on that, or trim the lamps, or put the shewbread in order, or to do anything peculiar to the priest’s office.” (3)

Moving into the New Testament:

New Testament Scriptures that are relevant to the question of women teachers and elders:

Paul’s commandments to the Churches:

“Let your women keep silence in the churches: for it is not permitted unto them to speak; but they are commanded to be under obedience, as also saith the law. And if they will learn anything, let them ask their husbands at home: for it is a shame for women to speak in the church. What? Came the word of God out from you? Or came it unto you only? If any man think himself to be a prophet, or spiritual, let him acknowledge that the things that I write unto you are the commandments of the Lord.” (1 Corinthians 14:34-37)


First, Paul says, “Let your women keep silence in the churches.” There is some debate as to what this means. If it is literal, this will prohibit women teachers. Also, Paul says in the above passage “as also saith the law.” When Paul says this, he is most certainly referring to Genesis 3:16, “Unto the woman he said, I will greatly multiply thy sorrow and thy conception; in sorrow, thou shalt bring forth children, and; thy desire shall be to thy husband, and he shall rule over thee.” Paul’s instruction is in regards to the creational patriarchal order that he says is still binding.

In addition, Paul says his instructions “are the commandments of the Lord,” and he says “churches.” “Churches” are mentioned in the plural. Therefore, “the commandments of the Lord” are not issued to just one church. These commandments of the Lord are different from a culturally conditioned directive like “Greet one another with a holy kiss. All the churches of Christ greet you” (Romans 16:16). Greeting or parting with a kiss is still a norm in some Mediterranean countries. This custom never took hold in Northern European countries. Sexually modest clothing would be a commandment. The actual type of clothing styles can vary from country to country and be culturally conditioned. For example, Jesus probably wore a Middle Eastern robe that was the norm in Israel. A robe, however, is not commanded in the twenty-first century. A commandment is not a suggestion, and it signifies divine rule.

How are these commandments of God implemented in the Church? The following abridgment of James W. Scott’s article on women speaking in the church explains this quite well.

May Women Speak in Church? By James W. Scott

What Speaking Is Forbidden?

“As we have already indicated, the speaking that is forbidden to women is public speaking, or speaking out, in the church assemblies. Speaking in general seems to be prohibited.

Praying (that is, leading in prayer) must be included in this speaking. Indeed, 1 Timothy 2:8 specifically states that “men” (in Greek, “males,” not “people”) are to “pray in every place [of worship], lifting up holy hands [that is, leading in prayer].”

Since singing is a form of “speaking” (Ephesians 5:19) and “teaching” (Colossians 3:16), it would also come within the scope of activity prohibited to women. This would rule out “special music” sung by women.

However, it is important to distinguish between an individual addressing the congregation and the congregation as a whole worshiping God audibly in the recitation of a prayer or the singing of a hymn. One aspect of such congregational speech is that the members of the congregation speak to one another (Ephesians 5:19), but in this case no individual teaching or leading is involved.

Would it be right for a minister to read a sermon or congregational prayer written out for him by a woman? Clearly not. Consider, then, whether it is right for him to lead the congregation in singing a song written out by a woman. As much as we may like the sentiments expressed by, say, Fanny Crosby, her words should not be given authority in the worship of the church. To sing her hymns in public worship is to make her a teacher, a worship leader, and a prayer leader in the church assembly.

Is there any way to escape the relentless logic of the rule of silence? Yes, says James B. Hurley, in Man and Woman in Biblical Perspective (Zondervan, 1981, pp. 185-94): the speaking prohibited to women in verses 34-35 is the judging of prophets mentioned briefly in passing way back in verse 29. And since prophecy has ceased, so has the judging of prophets, and thus this passage can now be ignored (pp. 185-94)!

However, verses 33b-36 form a distinct unit, not a continuation of the previous discussion of spiritual gifts. Thus, the previous discussion cannot be imposed on the passage to provide a limitation on its language.

Second, there is not the slightest hint in verses 33b-36 that the judging of prophets is in view. If Paul merely didn’t want women to judge prophets, why didn’t he simply say so?

Third, verses 34-35 are much too far from verse 29 to suppose that a reference there to evaluating prophets would control the subject matter of verses 34-35. Various kinds of speech are mentioned in verses 26-32; why should anyone think that verse 34 harks back to verse 29?

For these reasons, Hurley’s view must be rejected.

The only possible qualification that I can see in the rule of silence is that the verb “speak” has the nuance of “assert one’s views” or “express oneself.” The similar instruction in 1 Timothy 2:11-12 also requires women to remain silent, but more specifically prohibits teaching and other leading.

If this is so, it would be proper for a woman to give a personal testimony, report, announcement, or prayer request to the congregation, provided that it does not become exhortation, teaching, or leading in worship. (Whether such activity is appropriate in a worship service is a separate question.) The woman must be careful to remain “in subjection” (that is, not leading the assembly).” (4)

The New Testament biblical pattern of authority:

“Wives, submit yourselves unto your own husbands, as it is fit in the Lord.” (Colossians 3:18)

“But I would have you know, that the head of every man is Christ, and; the head of the woman is the man, and; the head of Christ is God.” (1 Corinthians 11:3)

Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Bible Commentary explains the apostle Paul on 1 Corinthians 11:3:

“3. The Corinthian women, on the ground of the abolition of distinction of sexes in Christ, claimed equality with the male sex, and, overstepping the bounds of propriety, came forward to pray and prophesy without the customary head-covering of females. The Gospel, doubtless, did raise women from the degradation in which they had been sunk, especially in the East. Yet, while on a level with males as to the offer of, and standing in grace (Ga 3:28), their subjection in point of order, modesty, and seemliness, is to be maintained. Paul reproves here their unseemliness as to dress: in 1Co 14:34, as to the retiring modesty in public, which becomes them. He grounds his reproof here on the subjection of woman to a man in the order of creation.

The head—an appropriate expression, when he is about to treat of woman’s appropriate headdress in public.

Of every man … Christ—(Ephesians 5:23).

Of … woman … man —(1Co 11:8; Ge 3:16; 1Ti 2:11, 12; 1Pe 3:1, 5, 6).

The head of Christ is God—(1Co 3:23; 15:27, 28; Lu 3:22, 38; Joh 14:28; 20:17; Ephesians 3:9). “Jesus, therefore, must be of the same essence as God: for, since the man is the head of the woman, and since the head is of the same essence as the body, and God is the head of the Son, it follows the Son is of the same essence as the Father” [Chrysostom]. “The woman is of the essence of the man, and not made by the man; so, too, the Son is not made by the Father, but of the essence of the Father” [Theodoret, t. 3, p. 171].” (5)

“Let the woman learn in silence with all subjection. But I suffer not a woman to teach, nor to usurp authority over the man, but to be in silence.” (1 Timothy 2:11-12)

Matthew Poole’s Commentary on 1 Timothy 2:12 are helpful:

“But I suffer not a woman to teach; not to teach in the public congregation, except she be a prophetess, endued with extraordinary gifts of the Spirit, as Mary, and Anna, and Huldah, and Deborah, and some women in the primitive church, concerning whom we read, 1 Corinthians 11:5, that they prophesied.

Nor to usurp authority over the man: ordinary teaching of the woman was a usurpation of authority over the man, who is the head, which the apostle also forbade in 1 Corinthians 11:3, and here repeateth. It is probable that the speaking of some women in the church who had extraordinary revelations, imboldened others also to aim at the like, which the apostle here directs his speech against. Nevertheless, women may, and it is their duty to instruct their children and families at home, especially in the absence of their husbands.” (6)


We can conclude from the above Scriptures and commentary that women are not allowed to teach or lead in public worship services. Women can teach in Sunday school classes, present information in congregational meetings, speak and lecture in theology conferences. The above Pauline passages rule out women ministers and elders.

Qualifications for church officers that speak to the prohibition of women elders:

“A bishop (elder) then must be blameless, the husband of one wife, vigilant, sober, of good behaviour, given to hospitality, apt to teach.” (1 Timothy 3:2)

Barnes’ Notes on the Bible on 1 Timothy 3:2 provide essential information:

“A bishop – A minister of religion, according to the foregoing remarks, who has the charge or oversight of any Christian church. The reference here is doubtless to one who had the government of the church entrusted to him 1 Timothy 3:4-5, and who was also a preacher of the gospel.

Must be blameless – This is a different word (ἀνεπίλημπτον anepilēmpton) from that rendered “blameless” in Luke 1:6; Philippians 2:15; Philippians 3:6 (ἄμεμπτος amemptos); compare however, Luke 1:6 note; Philippians 3:6 note. The word here used does not mean that, as a necessary qualification for office, a bishop should be “perfect;” but that he should be a man against whom no charge of immorality, or of holding false doctrine, is alleged. His conduct should be irreprehensible or irreproachable. Undoubtedly it means that if “any” charge could be brought against him implying moral obliquity, he is not fit for the office. He should be a man of irreproachable character for truth, honesty, chastity, and general uprightness.” (7)

In his comments, Barnes leaves no room for women elders.

“One that ruleth well his own house, having his children in subjection with all gravity.” (1 Timothy 3:4)

Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary on 1 Timothy 3:1-7 is most helpful:

“3:1-7 If a man desired the pastoral office, and from love to Christ, and the souls of men, was ready to deny himself, and undergo hardships by devoting himself to that service, he sought to be employed in a good work, and his desire should be approved, provided he was qualified for the office. A minister must give as little occasion for blame as can be, lest he bring reproach upon his office. He must be sober, temperate, moderate in all his actions, and in the use of all creature-comforts. Sobriety and watchfulness are put together in Scripture, they assist one the other. The families of ministers ought to be examples of good to all other families. We should take heed of pride; it is a sin that turned angels into devils. He must be of good repute among his neighbor’s, and under no reproach from his former life. To encourage all faithful ministers, we have Christ’s gracious word of promise, Lo, I am with you always, even unto the end of the world, Mt 28:20. And he will fit his ministers for their work, and carry them through difficulties with comfort, and reward their faithfulness.” (8)

An observation:

The commentators and scriptures use no gender-neutral language. The leadership language is always masculine. As seen in the previous passages, regarding the qualifications of deacons, male leadership is assumed.

“And let these also first be proved; then let them use the office of a deacon, being found blameless. Even so, must their wives be grave, not slanderers, sober, faithful in all things. Let the deacons be the husbands of one wife, ruling their children and their own houses well.” (1 Timothy 3:10-12)


It is true that “wives,” (γυνᾶικας gunaikas), could mean women. The apostle is dealing with the ordination of elders and deacons. Let us assume women to be the preferred translation. How would verse 11 fit into the context of Paul’s instructions to Timothy?

Dr. Leonard Coppes has some pertinent observations on this section of Scripture:

What then does one do with 1 Timothy 3:11:

“Women must likewise be dignified, not malicious gossips, but temperate, faithful in all things.”

Certainly, women cannot be ordained-that is, invested with authority to represent and participate in ruling over men. Perhaps this statement refers to the wives of deacons as Peter Y. DeJong (The Ministry of Mercy for Today, Grand Rapids, 1952, p. 97f.) argues. He notes that the deacons of the New Testament times would be faced with situations, which would pre-empt their successful execution of their responsibilities, and necessitate the use of a woman (no doubt, he says, their wives). For example, men could hardly tend widows and women who were ill. If so understood, the qualifications for these women are understandable. Another more plausible explanation might be that Paul is here speaking of women who were so used by the church, but who were not ordained. This would certainly explain why verse 10 precedes verse 11.

Verse 10 reads:

“Let these also first be tested; then let them serve as deacons if they are beyond reproach.”

If the intent was to speak of women office-bearers that verse would more consistently follow verse 11.

“Women must likewise be dignified, not malicious gossips, but temperate, faithful in all things.”

Our argument is further strengthened (1) by verse 12 which seems to contrast “deacons” with “women” (vs. 11) and thus distinguishes the wives of deacons and these women of verse 11, (20 by verse 13 which suggests that deacons are good candidates for the eldership; and (30 by verse 8 which is virtually parallel to verse 11 except that verse 8 begins with deacons (therefore, deacons are different from women).

The rest of the New Testament makes it clear that women were prominent in aiding (Rom. 16:1f.) and otherwise serving (Rom. 16:3, 6) the saints.” (9)

See * note below under “for more study” for a different view on the translation of (γυνᾶικας gunaikas). This study argues for the translation of “wives” rather than “women.”

What can we learn from the book of Hebrews on the standards of ordination?

“For every high priest taken from among men is ordained for men in things pertaining to God, that he may offer both gifts and sacrifices for sins.” (Hebrews 5:1)

Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Bible Commentary on this passage from Hebrews:


“Hebrews 5:1-14. Christ’s High Priesthood; Needed Qualifications; Must Be a Man; Must Not Have Assumed the Dignity Himself, but Have Been Appointed by God; Their Low Spiritual Perceptions a Bar to Paul’s Saying All He Might on Christ’s Melchisedec-like Priesthood.

1. For – substantiating Hebrews 4:15.

Every – that is, every legitimate high priest; for instance, the Levitical, as he is addressing Hebrews, among whom the Levitical priesthood was established as the legitimate one. Whatever, reasons Paul, is excellent in the Levitical priests, is also in Christ, and besides Excellencies, which are not in the Levitical priests.

Taken from among men—not from among angels, who could not have a fellow feeling with us men. This qualification Christ has, as being, like the Levitical priest, a man (Hebrews 2:14, 16). Being “from men,” He can be “for (that is, in behalf of, for the good of) men.”

Ordained – Greek, “constituted,” “appointed.”

Both gifts – to be joined with “for sins,” as “sacrifices” is (the “both … and” requires this); therefore not the Hebrew, “mincha,” “unbloody offerings,” but animal whole burnt offerings, spontaneously given. “Sacrifices” are the animal sacrifices due according to the legal ordinance [Estius].” (10)

Final concluding observations:

“For after this manner in the old time the holy women also, who trusted in God, adorned themselves, being in subjection unto their own husbands: Even as Sara obeyed Abraham, calling him lord: whose daughters ye are, as long as ye do well, and are not afraid with any amazement.” (1 Peter 3:1; 5-6)

Peter calls the married woman to be in subjection unto their husbands and offers proof for this by referring to Sara obeying Abraham. Peter’s instruction is similar to what Paul says in 1 Corinthians 14:34 where he says “as also saith the law.”

The primary reference in 1 Corinthians 14:34 is to Genesis 3:16. The reference to the law may also be a general reference to the whole Old Testament system of patriarchy as defined the entry on PATRIARCH from the International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. See note 4.

In these next two citations of Scripture, the leadership of the Old and New Covenant Churches pictured together in heaven.

In Revelation 4:4, the twenty-four elders sitting on twenty-four thrones surrounding the throne of God represents the entire church starting with the twenty-four for the twelve patriarchs (men) of the Old Testament and the twelve apostles (men) of the New Testament, see Revelation 21:12-14.

A pattern in Scripture:

1. God’s covenants were made with the men Adam and the Adamic covenant; Noah and the Noahic covenant; Abraham and the Abrahamic covenant; Moses and the Mosaic covenant; and David and the Davidic covenant.

2. New Covenant is made with the God-man, Christ Jesus, and the head of the Church.

3. God is referred to in masculine terms biblically. For example, a brief list of similes used to describe God is King, Father, Our Father, Husband, and Him, and He.

These concluding observations bring us back to the New Testament declaration:

“But I would have you know, that the head of every man is Christ; and the head of the woman is the man, and; the head of Christ is God.” (1 Corinthians 11:3) What Paul is saying is creational as seen in Genesis 3:16 and an ongoing New Testament norm.

In his Doctrinal Considerations of 1 Corinthians 11:3, Simon J. Kistemaker explains the parallels the headship between and husband and wife and Christ and the Church. The continued headship of the husband over the wife has inescapable parallels to male church governance:

“In a discussion on the word head in the current text, we ought to look at the other places where Paul uses this term. In his epistles, it occurs seventeen times; of which seven instances have the literal meaning of the word and ten the figurative connotation.

When Paul develops his teaching of Christ’s authority over the church and all creation, he expounds the headship of Christ. In Ephesians 1:22, Paul introduces Christ’s headship with a reference to his heavenly exaltation far above all “rule and authority, power and dominion.” The text itself speaks of the execution of Christ’s divine authority: “And God placed all things under his feet and appointed him head over everything for the church.” The theme that Christ is the head of the church also occurs in Ephesians 4:15; 5:23; and Colossians 1:18; 2:19. Christ is called the head over all things (Col. 2:10).

In one passage, Paul parallels the headship of Christ and the church with the husband as the head of the wife. In this particular text, we have a parallel that is instructive for interpreting 1 Corinthians 11:3. This is the reading: “Wives, submit to your husbands as to the Lord. For the husband is the head of the wife as Christ is the head of the church, his body, of which he is the Savior” (Eph. 5:22–23). The analogy of husband and wife to Christ and the church is clear. The wife submits to the husband as the church submits to Christ. But headship has its own unique quality, as the text indicates: Christ is the Savior of the church, which is his body. The church, then, has its existence in him. Likewise, on the basis of the account of Eve’s creation (Gen. 2:21–23), the husband acknowledges that the woman is from man and is dependent on him. Thus, headship signifies authority but it also includes a reference to origin that affects a continued relationship.

We infer from the parallel of 1 Corinthians 11:3 and Ephesians 5:22–23 that Paul presents Christ’s headship as a model. Just as Christ is the head of every man and of the church, so the husband is the head of the wife. As Christ submits to God the Father, so the wife submits to her husband.” (11)

A partial list of churches that do not ordain women, priests or ministers:

Orthodox Judaism does not allow women Rabbis. The Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church does not allow the ordination of women to the offices of bishops or priests. Conservative Presbyterian and Reformed churches, the Southern Baptist Convention churches, Reformed Baptists churches, Lutheran Wisconsin Synod and Missouri Synod churches do not ordain women. This list is not exhaustive. These different expressions of the Christian faith agree on the doctrine of male-only ordination. Agreement on the non-ordination of women is significant in light of the other differences between these churches.

A relevant question, does the ordination of women lead to theological liberalism?

In a review of “A New Path to Theological Liberalism?” Albert Mohler seeks an answer to this question:

“In Evangelical Feminism, published by Crossway Books, Wayne A. Grudem argues that evangelical feminism now represents one of the greatest dangers to the continued orthodoxy of the evangelical movement. ‘I am concerned that evangelical feminism (also known as “egalitarianism”) has become a new path by which evangelicals are being drawn into theological liberalism,’ he explains.” (12)

Dr. Gordon Clark on the history behind not ordaining women:

“The Protestant Reformation, for all its opposition to Romanism, never questioned the practice of ordaining men only. Now, if this practice has continued from the time of Abraham down to 1960 or thereabouts, those who are innovators surely must bear the burden of proof. The Westminster Confession indeed says, ‘All Synods…may err, and many have erred.’ Therefore, it is theoretically possible that the Reformed Presbyterian Church is in error. But when the agreement is worldwide over 4,000 years, it is, I repeat, extremely improbable. Therefore a mountainous burden of proof rests on those who advocate the ordination of women.” (13)

Therefore, in light of the above biblical material, women cannot be ministers’ or elders, nor teach in worship services in the churches of Christ.


1. Walter A. Elwell, Editor Baker’s Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology, (Grand Rapids, Michigan, Baker Book House), p. 347.

2. James Orr, M.A., D.D. General Editor, International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, Definition for ‘PATRIARCH; PATRIARCHS’, (Grand Rapids, Michigan, Eerdmans Publishing), p. 2264.

3. John Gill, Exposition of the Old and New Testaments, Numbers, 9 Volumes, Romans, (Grace Works, Multi-Media Labs), 2011, p. 261-262.

4. James W. Scott is the managing editor of New Horizons. He supplies his own Bible translations. Reprinted from New Horizons, January 1996.

5. Jamieson, Fausset and Brown, Commentary on the Whole Bible, (Grand Rapids, Michigan, Zondervan, 1977), p. 1211.

6. Matthew Poole’s Commentary on the Holy Bible, vol. 3, (Peabody, Massachusetts, Hendrickson Publishers, 1985), p. 778.

7. Albert Barnes, THE AGES DIGITAL LIBRARYCOMMENTARY, Barnes’ Notes on the Bible, 1 Timothy, p. 3867.

8. Matthew Henry, Concise Commentary, 1 Timothy, (Nashville, Tennessee, Thomas Nelson), p. 1964.

9. Leonard J. Coppes, Who Will Lead US: A Study in the Development of Biblical Offices with Emphasis on the Diaconate, (Chattanooga, TN, Pilgrim Publishing Company, 1977), pp. 136-137.

10. Jamieson, Fausset and Brown, Commentary on the Whole Bible, (Grand Rapids, Michigan, Zondervan, 1977), p. 1408.

11. Simon J. Kistemaker, New Testament Commentary, 1 Corinthians, (Grand Rapids, Michigan, Baker Book House, 1986), pp. 366-367.

12. Albert Mohler, A New Path to Theological Liberalism?, ttps://www. christianheadlines.com/…/a-new-path-to-theological-liberali…

13. http ://www. trinityfoundation.org/reviews/journal.asp?ID=016a.html.

Mr. Kettler has previously published articles in the Chalcedon Report and Contra Mundum. He and his wife Marea attend the Westminster, CO, RPCNA Church. Mr. Kettler is the author of the book defending the Reformed Faith against attacks, titled: The Religion That Started in a Hat. Available at: http://www.thereligionthatstartedinahat.com/

For more study:

* How should γυνᾶικας gunaikas be translated in 1 Timothy 3:11–“women” or “wives”? http://www.rbap.net/1-timothy-311-women-or-wives/

Recovering Biblical Manhood and Womanhood Edited by John Piper and Wayne Grudem


The Ordination of Women by Dr. Gordon H. Clark http://www.trinityfoundation.org/journal.php?id=17

Who will lead us: A study in the development of Biblical offices, with emphasis on the diaconate by Dr. Leonard J. Coppes

Where can the teaching of women ordination lead? By Matt Slick https://carm.org/where-can-teaching-women-ordination-lead

Evangelical Feminism: A New Path to Liberalism? By Wayne A. Grudem https://www.amazon.com/Evangelical-Feminism-Ne…/…/1581347340

Dangerous first step Scholar Wayne Grudem on how “evangelical feminism” undermines Scripture and leads to theological liberalism https://world.wng.org/2006/11/dangerous_first_step

Women Servants https://www.ligonier.org/learn/devotionals/women-servants/

A Historical and Biblical Examination of Women Deacons by Brian M. Schwertley http://www.all-of-grace.org/pub/schwertley/deacon.html

Archibald Alexander Allison OPC pastor
Biblical Qualifications for Elders
Biblical Qualifications for Deacons (part1)
Biblical Qualifications for Deacons (part2)
Biblical Qualifications for Deacons(part3)

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Jephthah’s vow, did he sacrifice his Daughter?

Jephthah’s vow, did he sacrifice his Daughter? By Jack Kettler

Did Jephthah kill his daughter? Many commentators believe that Jephthah did sacrifice his daughter as a burnt offering. In this study, an alternative thesis will be put forward by citing some of the dissenting commentators and raising a few questions that make it unlikely that Jephthah did.

As in previous studies, we will look at scriptures, commentary evidence for the glorifying of God in how we live.

The section of Scripture for this study:

“Then the Spirit of the Lord came upon Jephthah, and he passed over Gilead, and Manasseh, and passed over Mizpeh of Gilead, and from Mizpeh of Gilead he passed over unto the children of Ammon. And Jephthah vowed a vow unto the Lord, and said, If thou shalt without fail deliver the children of Ammon into mine hands, Then it shall be, that whatsoever cometh forth of the doors of my house to meet me, when I return in peace from the children of Ammon, shall surely be the Lord’s, and I will offer it up for a burnt offering. So Jephthah passed over unto the children of Ammon to fight against them; and the Lord delivered them into his hands. And he smote them from Aroer, even till thou come to Minnith, even twenty cities, and unto the plain of the vineyards, with a very great slaughter. Thus, the children of Ammon were subdued before the children of Israel. And Jephthah came to Mizpeh unto his house, and, behold, his daughter came out to meet him with timbrels and with dances: and she was his only child; beside her he had neither son nor daughter. And it came to pass, when he saw her, that he rent his clothes, and said, Alas, my daughter! Thou hast brought me very low, and thou art one of them that trouble me: for I have opened my mouth unto the Lord, and I cannot go back. And she said unto him, My father, if thou hast opened thy mouth unto the Lord, do to me according to that which hath proceeded out of thy mouth; forasmuch as the Lord hath taken vengeance for thee of thine enemies, even of the children of Ammon. And she said unto her father, Let this thing be done for me: let me alone two months, that I may go up and down upon the mountains, and bewail my virginity, I and my fellows. And he said, Go. And he sent her away for two months: and she went with her companions, and bewailed her virginity upon the mountains. And it came to pass at the end of two months, that she returned unto her father, who did with her according to his vow which he had vowed: and she knew no man. And it was a custom in Israel, that the daughters of Israel went yearly to lament the daughter of Jephthah the Gileadite four days in a year.” (Judges 11:29-40) (Highlighting emphasis mine)

The textual highlighting is for emphasis that is crucial to a proper interpretation of Jephthah’s vow.

According to the next passage from Numbers, there appears to be no way out of a vow made unto the Lord:

“If a man vow a vow unto the LORD, or swear an oath to bind his soul with a bond; he shall not break his word, he shall do according to all that proceedeth out of his mouth.” (Numbers 30:2)

The above vow made by Jephthah appears to be airtight as far as negating it. If this is true, it would certainly seem to work against the dissenting view that Jephthah did not fulfill the vow in a literal way. Is there a way out of a vow made before God?

There is a provision for an unbiblical or rash vow:

“Or if a soul swear, pronouncing with his lips to do evil, or to do good, whatsoever it be that a man shall pronounce with an oath, and it be hid from him; when he knoweth of it, then he shall be guilty in one of these. And it shall be, when he shall be guilty in one of these things, that he shall confess that he hath sinned in that thing.” (Leviticus 5:4-5)

There is a way out and for those making unbiblical and rash vows. Consider the Benson Commentary on the passage from Leviticus:

Leviticus 5:4. If a soul swear — Rashly and unadvisedly, without consideration, either of God’s law or of his own power or right, as David did, 1 Samuel 25:22 : so the following word, לבשׂא, lebattee, rendered pronouncing, properly signifies, Psalm 106:33. The meaning is, whosoever shall, in a passion or otherwise, make an oath to do a person an injury, or to do him a kindness, and afterward, forgetting his oath, shall fail in the performance, so soon as he recollects himself he shall make atonement for his offence. In the case of threatening private revenge, or to do evil in any other way, the oath ought to be recalled, as being a thing in itself unlawful. But the person who thus rashly uttered that oath was involved in guilt, and needed to have his sin expiated. And for a similar reason he was punishable, if with an oath he promised to do any thing that was not in his power. It may also be understood of a person’s making a vow to do something either beneficial or hurtful to himself, as to fast, or afflict himself. For that is the sense of swearing to do evil, or to his own hurt. And it be hid from him — That is, if through forgetfulness he neglect punctually to perform what he promised on oath. When he knoweth it, he shall be guilty in one of these — As soon as he recollects himself, and comes to the knowledge of such an omission, he shall be obliged to expiate his offence by sacrifices, being guilty in one of these; that is, in one of the things which are forbidden to be done. (1)

Consider King David’s rash vow:

“God do so to the enemies of David and more also, if by morning I leave so much as one male of all who belong to him.” (1 Samuel 25:22ESV)

God provided a way out for David and his rash vow. Consider the Keil and Delitzsch Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament understanding of this passage:

However, intelligible David’s wrath may appear in the situation in which he was placed, it was not right before God, but a sudden burst of sinful passion, which was unseemly in a servant of God. By carrying out his intention, he would have sinned against the Lord and against His people. But the Lord preserved him from this sin by the fact that, just at the right time, Abigail, the intelligent and pious wife of Nabal, heard of the affair, and was able to appease the wrath of David by her immediate and kindly interposition.

1 Samuel 25:14-16

Abigail heard from one of (Nabal’s) servants what had taken place (בּרך, to wish any one prosperity and health, i.e., to salute, as in 1 Samuel 13:10; and יעט, from עיט, to speak wrathfully: on the form, see at 1 Samuel 15:19 and 1 Samuel 14:32), and also what had been praiseworthy in the behaviour of David’s men towards Nabal’s shepherds; how they had not only done them no injury, had not robbed them of anything, but had defended them all the while. “They were a wall (i.e., a firm protection) round us by night and by day, as long as we were with them feeding the sheep,” i.e., a wall of defense against attacks from the Bedouins living in the desert. (2)


As seen in 1 Samuel, Abigail intervened on David’s half, freeing him from the vow. Likewise, Phinehas the priest; at the time of Jephthah could have intervened and redeemed Jephthah’s daughter with a price. Besides, as seen in Leviticus 5:4-5 a substitute animal sacrifice would satisfy the demands of the vow. Did this intervention happen with Phinehas, the priest? We do not know. The scriptural record is silent, so nothing can be said without using an argument from silence.

What about Deuteronomy 12:31 and Exodus 20:13 and Jephthah’s vow?

Jephthah’s vow if in fact was about burning his daughter is contrary to, “Thou shalt not do so unto the LORD thy God: for every abomination to the LORD, which he hateth, have they done unto their gods; for even their sons and their daughters they have burnt in the fire to their gods.” (Deuteronomy 12:31)

The passage in Deuteronomy speaks in particular about the people of Canaan and sacrificing children to their false gods. Despite its particular focus, the passage has implications for Jephthah and how he should have known that a human sacrifice breaks one of the Ten Commandments, “You shall not murder” (Exodus 20:13). A typical father would surely be thinking about a way out of the vow. That is where Leviticus 5:4-5 would be relevant.

Because of this commandment in Exodus 20:13, the Israelites were forbidden never to worship God in the way of the Canaanites. It can be presumed that Jephthah was aware of these scriptural prohibitions since God had raised him up as a Judge and deliverer of Israel.

Consider Gill’s Exposition of the Entire Bible. Gill’s comments show the difficulty of solving the understanding of Jephthah’s daughter and his vow from Judges:

And it came to pass at the end of two months she returned to her father … For the request she made was not a pretense to make her escape out of his hands; but having done what she proposed to do, and the time fixed for it being come, she returned to her father’s house, and delivered herself to him:

who did with her according to his vow which he had vowed: but what he did is a question, and which is not easily resolved; some think he really sacrificed her, through a mistaken sense of Leviticus 27:29 and which his action are accounted for through his living a military life, and in a distant part of the country, and at a time when idolatry had greatly prevailed in Israel, and to such a degree as it had not before, and no doubt that branch of it, sacrificing children to Molech; and Jephthah might think that though that was sinful, yet such a sacrifice might be acceptable to the Lord; and especially since his vow, as he thought, bound him to it; and how far the instance of Abraham offering up his son Isaac might encourage him to it, cannot be said: of this mind were Josephus (k), Jonathan Ben Uzziah the Targumist, and some other Jewish writers (l); and many of the ancient Christian fathers, and many modern authors of every name among Christians; and it has been thought that the story of Iphigenia, who Capellus (m) thinks is the same with Jepthigenia, that is, the daughter of Jephthah, and was slain by her father Agamemnon, having several circumstances in it similar to this, is taken from hence: and there is much such a case as this related (n) of Idomeneus, a king of the Cretians, who upon his return after the destruction of Troy, being in a tempest, vowed, should he be saved, that he would sacrifice the first he met with to the gods; and as it was his son he first met with, he sacrificed him; or, as others say, would have done it, but was prevented by the citizens, and who on this account drove him from his kingdom. But others are of opinion that what Jephthah did according to his vow was, that he shut up his daughter, and separated her from the company of men, and obliged her to live unmarried all her days, and therefore she is said to bewail her virginity. Kimchi and Ben Melech say, he built a house for her without the city, where she dwelt alone, and knew no man; and where her father supported her, and obliged her to live all her days; and Abarbinel thinks, that the Romanists from hence learnt to build their cloisters to put their nuns in; and so Ben Gersom interprets this vow of her being separated from men, and devoted to the service of God; and which is the sense of many Christian interpreters. Now though Jephthah had no such power over his daughter, as to oblige her to perpetual virginity, nor did his vow bind him to it; for persons devoted to the Lord were not obliged to abstain from marriage, nor have we any instances of a monastic life in those times, nor among the Jews at any time; yet as he did something not right, which he thought his vow obliged him to, one would be rather tempted to think, in charity to him, that of the two evils he did the least; for if she was put to death, it must be done either by the magistrates, or by the priests, or by Jephthah himself; neither of which is probable:

and she knew no man; never married, but lived and died a virgin: “and it was a custom in Israel”; the Targum adds, “that a man might not offer his son or his daughter for a burnt offering, as Jephthah the Gileadite did, and did not consult Phinehas the priest; for had he consulted Phinehas the priest, he would have redeemed her with a price;”’ so Jarchi, according to Leviticus 27:4 but each stood upon their honour, as the Jews say (o); Jephthah being a king would not go to Phinehas, and Phinehas being an high priest; and the son of an high priest, would not go to a plebeian; and so, between them both, the maiden was lost: but the custom refers to what follows.

(k) Antiqu l. 5. c. 7. sect. 10. (l) Bereshit Rabba, sect. 60, fol. 52. 3. Vajikra Rabba, sect. 37. fol. 176. 4. (m) De Voto Jephthae, sect. 12. (n) Alex. ab Alex. Genial. Dier. l. 3. c. 22. Servius in Virgil. Aeneid. l. 3. col. 693. in l. 11. col. 1634. (o) Bereshit Rabba & Vajikra, ut supra. (l)); Midrash Kohelet, fol. 81. 3. (3)

As Gill notes, “for if she was put to death, it must be done either by the magistrates, or by the priests, or by Jephthah himself; neither of which is probable.” Gill’s observations, highlight the interpretive difficulty in understanding the outcome of Jephthah’s vow. In the time of the patriarch Abraham, individuals could offer sacrifices. In Jephthah’s time, the priesthood, and tabernacle were in place, and individuals who were not part of the priesthood could not offer sacrifices. Jephthah was not a priest and therefore was not able to offer sacrifices. As seen later in redemptive history, God revoked Saul from being King over Israel for offering a sacrifice. See 1 Samuel 13:1-15:33.

Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary on Judges 11:29-40 is a reasonable supposition to Jephthah’s vow:

11:29-40: Several important lessons are to be learned from Jephthah’s vow. 1. There may be remainders of distrust and doubting, even in the hearts of true and great believers. 2. Our vows to God should not be as a purchase of the favour we desire, but to express gratitude to him. 3. We need to be very well-advised in making vows, lest we entangle ourselves. 4. What we have solemnly vowed to God, we must perform, if it be possible and lawful, though it be difficult and grievous to us. 5. It well becomes children, obediently and cheerfully to submit to their parents in the Lord. It is hard to say what Jephthah did in performance of his vow; but it is thought that he did not offer his daughter as a burnt-offering. Such a sacrifice would have been an abomination to the Lord; it is supposed she was obliged to remain unmarried, and apart from her family. Concerning this and some other such passages in the sacred history, about which learned men are divided and in doubt, we need not perplex ourselves; what is necessary to our salvation, thanks be to God, is plain enough. If the reader recollects the promise of Christ concerning the teaching of the Holy Spirit, and places himself under this heavenly Teacher, the Holy Ghost will guide to all truth in every passage, so far as it is needful to be understood. (4)

Benson’s Commentary on the passage from Judges confirms the alternative thesis, namely, that Jephthah’s daughter was not sacrificed but remained in perpetual virginity:

Judges 11:39. Did with her — That Jephthah’s daughter was not sacrificed, but only devoted to perpetual virginity, appears. 1st, from Judges 11:37-38, where we read that she bewailed, not her death, which had been the chief cause of lamentation, if that had been vowed, but her virginity; 2d, From this verse, where, after the sacred writer had said, that he did with her according to his vow; he adds, by way of declaration of the matter of that vow, and she knew no man. (5)


Jephthah’s daughter said this, “Let this thing be done for me: let me alone two months, that I may go up and down upon the mountains, and bewail my virginity, I and my fellows. And he said, Go. And he sent her away for two months: and she went with her companions, and bewailed her virginity upon the mountains.” (Judges 11:37)

It makes no sense for Jephthah’s daughter and her companions to bewail her virginity if she is about to be put to death. It does make sense to bewail her virginity if she is going to bound to be a perpetual virgin.


“And it came to pass at the end of two months that she returned unto her father, who did with her according to his vow which he had vowed: and she knew no man.” (Judges 11:39)

“And she knew no man” is an added on thought in the text. If she was sacrificed, it is a strange way of saying that she was killed as a burnt offering. If she was sacrificed, the added on thought offers unnecessary information. Instead of being unnecessary information, this added on thought may be textual evidence that the vow was not human sacrifice, but perpetual virginity.

Requirements for Levitical burnt offering and implications for Jephthah’s sacrifice:

When considering how at this point in redemptive history and the development of the priesthood and tabernacle, it becomes problematic for the actual sacrifice of Jephthah’s daughter and should give pause and consideration of the alternative, interpretation, namely that his daughter and her perpetual virginity was the fulfillment of the vow.

Question: “What is a burnt offering?”

Answer: The burnt offering is one of the oldest and most common offerings in history. It’s entirely possible that Abel’s offering in Genesis 4:4 was a burnt offering, although the first recorded instance is in Genesis 8:20 when Noah offers burnt offerings after the flood. God ordered Abraham to offer his son, Isaac, in a burnt offering in Genesis 22, and then provided a ram as a replacement. After suffering through nine of the ten plagues, Pharaoh decided to let the people go from bondage in Egypt, but his refusal to allow the Israelites to take their livestock with them in order to offer burnt offerings brought about the final plague that led to the Israelites’ delivery (Exodus 10:24-29).

The Hebrew word for “burnt offering” actually means to “ascend,“ literally to “go up in smoke.” The smoke from the sacrifice ascended to God, “a soothing aroma to the LORD” (Leviticus 1:9). Technically, any offering burned over an altar was a burnt offering, but in more specific terms, a burnt offering was the complete destruction of the animal (except for the hide) in an effort to renew the relationship between Holy God and sinful man. With the development of the law, God gave the Israelites specific instructions as to the types of burnt offerings and what they symbolized.

Leviticus 1 and 6:8-13 describe the traditional burnt offering. The Israelites brought a bull, sheep, or goat, a male with no defect, and killed it at the entrance to the tabernacle. The animal’s blood was drained, and the priest sprinkled blood around the altar. The animal was skinned and cut it into pieces, the intestines and legs washed, and the priest burned the pieces over the altar all night. The priest received the skin as a fee for his help. A turtledove or pigeon could also be sacrificed, although they weren’t skinned.

A person could give a burnt offering at any time. It was a sacrifice of general atonement—an acknowledgement of the sin nature and a request for renewed relationship with God. God also set times for the priests to give a burnt offering for the benefit of the Israelites as a whole, although the animals required for each sacrifice varied. See got questions ***

Some additional Levitical references on The Burnt Offerings:

Leviticus 1:3 “Let him offer a male without blemish; he shall offer it of his own free will at the door of the tabernacle of meeting before the LORD.”

Leviticus 1:4-9 “Then he shall put his hand on the head of the burnt offering, and it will be accepted on his behalf to make atonement for him. ’He shall kill the bull before the LORD; and the priests, Aaron’s sons, shall bring the blood and sprinkle the blood all around on the altar that is by the door of the tabernacle of meeting . . . and the priest shall burn all on the altar as a burnt sacrifice, an offering made by fire, a sweet aroma to the LORD.”

Leviticus 1:6-9 “And he shall skin the burnt offering and cut it into its pieces. The sons of Aaron the priest shall put fire on the altar, and lay the wood in order on the fire. Then the priests, Aaron’s sons, shall lay the parts, the head, and the fat in order on the wood that is on the fire upon the altar; but he shall wash its entrails and its legs with water.”

In light of the above information on burnt offerings, it would have been impossible for a priest in Israel to accept Jephthah’s daughter for a burnt offering and follow the prescriptions of draining the blood, skinning and cutting it in pieces and burning the pieces over the altar all night and allowing the priest to keep the skin.

Additionally, the burnt offering required a male animal. “Ye shall offer at your own will a male without blemish, of the beeves, of the sheep, or of the goats” (Leviticus 22:19). The requirement of a male also makes it unlikely that Jephthah daughter became a burnt offering. The requirement of a male surely looked forward to Christ’s sacrifice on the cross.

Moreover, Jephthah’s vow was rash. As the commentator, Joseph Benson noted, “If a soul swear rashly and unadvisedly, without consideration of God’s law” (Leviticus 5:4). In verse 5 of Leviticus Chapter 5, the text shows that there was a way out of the rash vow.

Also, Jephthah continued as a Judge over Israel for several more years. The text says nothing about any outcry or complaints against the violation of God’s law if Jephthah did indeed sacrifice his daughter. Later in Judges, God chronicled Samson’s sins. Where the Scriptures say nothing or are silent, we must tread carefully.

“Study to shew thyself approved unto God, a workman that needeth not to be ashamed, rightly dividing the word of truth.” (2 Timothy 2:15)


1. Joseph Benson, Benson Commentary of the Old and New Testaments, Leviticus, (New-York, New York, Published By T. Carlton & J. Porter, 1857), page online reference.

2. Keil-Delitzsch, Commentary on the Old Testament, 1 Samuel, (Grand Rapids, Michigan, William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, Reprinted 1985), p.240-241.

3. John Gill, Exposition of the Old and New Testaments, Judges, 9 Volumes, Romans, (Grace Works, Multi-Media Labs), 2011, p.184-186.

4. Matthew Henry, Concise Commentary, Judges, (Nashville, Tennessee, Thomas Nelson), p.416-417.

5. Joseph Benson, Benson Commentary of the Old and New Testaments, Judges, (New-York, New York, Published By T. Carlton & J. Porter, 1857), page online reference.

Mr. Kettler has previously published articles in the Chalcedon Report and Contra Mundum. He and his wife Marea attend the Westminster, CO, RPCNA Church. Mr. Kettler is the author of the book defending the Reformed Faith against attacks, titled: The Religion That Started in a Hat. Available at: http://www.thereligionthatstartedinahat.com/

For more study:

* http://www.rebecca-writes.com/theological-terms-in-ao/

** CARM theological dictionary https://carm.org/dictionary-hermeneutics

*** https://www.gotquestions.org/

A majority view, contrary to the above thesis:

Jephthah’s Vow by Tim Chaffey at https://answersingenesis.org/bible-characters/jephthahs-vow/

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The Visible and Invisible Church

The Visible and Invisible Church by Jack Kettler

In this study, we will seek to understand the terminology, “Visible” and “Invisible Church.” Are these terms meaningless or essential to help understand the local and universal aspects of the church? As in previous studies, we will look at definitions, scriptures, commentary evidence and confessional support for the glorifying of God in how we live.

“Shew me thy ways, O LORD; teach me thy paths.” (Psalm 25:4)


Visible church

“All those who profess faith in Christ and give evidence of their faith with their lives”; all those who profess faith in Christ, submit to baptism, and place themselves under the preaching and authority of a local church, along with their children. *

Invisible church

“The company of those who truly believe in Jesus Christ and are the recipients of salvation, both those who are currently alive and those who have died.” *

The Visible Church from Scripture:

“Unto the church of God which is at Corinth, to them that are sanctified in Christ Jesus, called to be saints, with all that in every place call upon the name of Jesus Christ our Lord, both theirs and ours.” (1 Corinthians 1:2)

Corinth is a visible city on a map with a church that has a physical location for worship.

The Invisible Church from Scripture:

“Nevertheless the foundation of God standeth sure, having this seal; The Lord knoweth them that are his. And, Let everyone that nameth the name of Christ depart from iniquity.” (2 Timothy 2:19)

In contrast, 2 Timothy, God speaks of believers that He knows in distinction from a church membership in a specific church like Corinth or Ephesus.

First, it is essential to answer the question; what is the Church?

The word church in the New Testament is the translation of the Greek word ecclesia and is synonymous with the Hebrew kahal in the Old Testament. Kahal is translated Ecclesia in the Greek Septuagint version of the Old Testament. Both words mean an assembly in their most basic meaning and do not necessarily have anything to do with public worship. The context determines the meaning.

Ecclesia is used in the following ways in the New Testament:

Ecclesia is translated “assembly” in the primary way in Acts 19:32, 39, and 41. In this case, Demetrius and fellow artisans assembled against Paul with the town clerk pacifying the people and keeping order.
It is the whole body of the redeemed, or all those whom the Father has given to Christ, the invisible catholic or universal Church in Ephesians 5:23, 25, 27, 29 and Hebrews 12:23.
It can be used for a few Christians associated together, in Romans 16:5 and Colossians 4:15.
It can be used for Christians in a particular city, irrespective if they are assembled in one place or several places for worship, and are thus an ecclesia. The disciples in Antioch, forming several congregations, were one Church in Acts 13:1, in addition, we see the “Church of God at Corinth” 1 Corinthians 1:2, also the “Church at Jerusalem” in Acts 8:1 and the “Church of Ephesus” in Revelation 2:1.
Ecclesia can also be used for the whole body of confessing Christians throughout the world as seen in 1 Corinthians 15:9, Galatians 1:13, and Matthew 16:18 are the Church of Christ. **

The value of the visible invisible church distinction seen in the next two passages:

“Let both grow together until the harvest: and in the time of harvest I will say to the reapers, Gather ye together first the tares, and bind them in bundles to burn them: but gather the wheat into my barn.” (Matthew 13:30)

“They went out from us, but they were not of us; for if they had been of us, they would no doubt have continued with us: but they went out, that they might be made manifest that they were not all of us.” (1 John 2:19)

In the visible church, there are fake believers and true believers. They both (tares and wheat) grow together until the end. The tares are part of the visible church. The wheat is part of the visible church plus the universal invisible church. Only God knows the true membership roll making up the invisible church. On a human level, we cannot read the hearts of professors of faith. That is why many are shocked when a seemingly strong member of the church departs and goes into unbelief as John explains in 1 John 2:19.

More evidence that Christ’s Church is both “visible” and “invisible:”

Chapter 25 Of the Church in the Westminster Confession explains how the Church “visible” is comprised of all those throughout the world that profess the true faith, together with their children. The church is called “visible” because its membership roll identifies its members and its assemblies are public in a physical location. In the visible Church, there is a mixture of “wheat and chaff,” or of saints and unconverted sinners. God has commanded His people to organize themselves into visible assemblies, with constitutions, officers, ordinances governing worship, and discipline for the purpose of making known the gospel of His kingdom, and of gathering in all of the elect from the uttermost parts of the earth, Mark 13:27.

Each one of these organized assemblies that pledges fidelity to Christ is part of the visible Church, and together with their children constitute the universal visible Church. A credible profession of faith involving membership vows is required for an adult to be a member of the visible Church. This Church is also called “the kingdom of heaven,” whose characteristics can be seen in the parables found in Matthew 13:24-52.

In comparison, the Church “invisible” consists of the whole number of the elect that have been, are, or shall be gathered into one universal body under Christ, the head thereof. The Church is the body of Christ. It is called “invisible” because the greater part of those who are members in it are already in heaven or are yet unborn, and because its members still on earth cannot with certainly be distinguished this side of heaven because of the mixture of “wheat and chaff.”

The Church is universal or worldwide. Christ’s Church is pictured as the stone in Daniel 2:35. This stone becomes a mountain and fills the whole earth. This kingdom can never be destroyed and is Christ’s Church, Daniel 2:44. In the parable of the mustard seed, we see the Church and how it will become a great tree is seen in (Matthew 13:31-32). Christ’s Church will advance in History and the “Gates of Hell” shall never prevail against Her, Matthew 16:17. **

The distinction between the Visible and Invisible Church by John Calvin:


But because it is now our intention to discuss the visible church, let us learn even from the simple title “mother” [Footnote 10] how useful, indeed how necessary, it is that we should know her. For there is no other way to enter into life unless this mother conceive us in her womb, give us birth, nourish us at her breast, and lastly, unless she keep us under her care and guidance until, putting off mortal flesh, we become like the angels [Matthew 22:30]. Our weakness does not allow us to be dismissed from her school until we have been pupils all our lives. Furthermore, away from her bosom one cannot hope for any forgiveness of sins or any salvation, as Isaiah [Isaiah 37:32] and Joel [Joel 2:32] testify. Ezekiel agrees with them when he declares that those whom God rejects from heavenly life will not be enrolled among God’s people [Ezekiel 13:9]. On the other hand, those who turn to the cultivation of true godliness are said to inscribe their names among the citizens of Jerusalem [cf. Isaiah 56:5; Psalm 87:6]. For this reason, it is said in another psalm: “Remember me, O Jehovah, with favor toward thy people; visit me with salvation: that I may see the well-doing of thy chosen ones, that I may rejoice in the joy of thy nation, that I may be glad with thine inheritance” [Psalm 106:4-5 p.; cf. Psalm 105:4, Vg., etc.]. By these words God’s fatherly favor and the especial witness of spiritual life are limited to his flock, so that it is always disastrous to leave the church.

(The visible church: its membership and the marks by which it is recognized, 7-9)


“How we are to judge the church visible, which falls within our knowledge, is, I believe, already evident from the above discussion. For we have said that Holy Scripture speaks of the church in two ways. Sometimes by the term “church” it means that which is actually in God’s presence, into which no persons are received but those who are children of God by grace of adoption and true members of Christ by sanctification of the Holy Spirit. Then, indeed, the church includes not only the saints presently living on earth, but all the elect from the beginning of the world. Often, however, the name “church” designates the whole multitude of men spread over the earth who profess to worship one God and Christ. By baptism we are initiated into faith in him; by partaking in the Lord’s Supper we attest our unity in true doctrine and love; in the Word of the Lord we have agreement, and for the preaching of the Word the ministry instituted by Christ is preserved. In this church are mingled many hypocrites who have nothing of Christ but the name and outward appearance. There are very many ambitious, greedy, envious persons, evil speakers, and some of quite unclean life. Such are tolerated for a time either because they cannot be convicted by a competent tribunal or because a vigorous discipline does not always flourish as it ought. Just as we must believe, therefore, that the former church, invisible to us, [Footnote 14] is visible to the eyes of God alone, so we are commanded to revere and keep communion with the latter, which is called “church” in respect to men.


Accordingly, the Lord by certain marks and tokens has pointed out to us what we should know about the church. As we have cited above from Paul, to know who are His is a prerogative belonging solely to God [2 Timothy 2:19]. [Footnote 15] Steps were indeed thus taken to restrain men’s undue rashness; and daily events themselves remind us how far his secret judgments surpass our comprehension. For those who seemed utterly lost and quite beyond hope are by his goodness called back to the way; while those who more than others seemed to stand firm often fall. ‘Therefore, according to God’s secret predestination (as Augustine says), “many sheep are without, and many wolves are within.” [Footnote 16] For he knows and has marked those who know neither him nor themselves. Of those who openly wear his badge, his eyes alone see the ones who are unfeignedly holy and will persevere to the very end [Matthew 24:13]—the ultimate point of salvation.

But on the other hand, because he foresaw it to be of some value for us to know who were to be counted as his children, he has in this regard accommodated himself to our capacity. And, since assurance of faith was not necessary, he substituted for it a certain charitable judgment whereby we recognize as members of the church those who, by confession of faith, by example of life, and by partaking of the sacraments, profess the same God and Christ with us. [Footnote 17] He has, moreover, set off by plainer marks the knowledge of his very body to us, knowing how necessary it is to our salvation.


From this the face of the church comes forth and becomes visible to our eyes. Wherever we see the Word of God purely preached and heard, and the sacraments administered according to Christ’s institution, there, it is not to be doubted, a church of God exists [cf. Ephesians 2:20]. [Footnote 18] For his promise cannot fail: “Wherever two or three are gathered in my name, there I am in the midst of them” [Matthew 18:20]. But that we may clearly grasp the sum of this matter, we must proceed by the following steps: the church universal is a multitude gathered from all nations; it is divided and dispersed in separate places, but agrees on the one truth of divine doctrine, and is bound by the bond of the same religion. Under it are thus included individual churches, disposed in towns and villages according to human need, so that each rightly has the name and authority of the church. Individual men who, by their profession of religion, are reckoned within such churches, even though they may actually be strangers to the church, still in a sense belong to it until they have been rejected by public judgment.

There is, however, a slightly different basis for judgment concerning individual men and churches. For it may happen that we ought to treat like brothers and count as believers those whom we think unworthy of the fellowship of the godly, because of the common agreement of the church by which they are borne and tolerated in the body of Christ. We do not by our vote approve such persons as members of the church, but we leave to them such place as they occupy among the people of God until it is lawfully taken from them.

But we must think otherwise of the whole multitude itself. If it has the ministry of the Word and honors it, if it has the administration of the sacraments, it deserves without doubt to be held and considered a church. For it is certain that such things are not without fruit. In this way we preserve for the universal church its unity, which devilish spirits have always tried to sunder; and we do not defraud of their authority those lawful assemblies which have been set up in accordance with local needs. (1)

From The Westminster Larger Catechism on the Visible Church:

Q62: What is the visible church?

A62: The visible church is a society made up of all such as in all ages and places of the world do profess the true religion, and of their children.

Q63: What are the special privileges of the visible church?

A63: The visible church has the privilege of being under God’s special care and government; of being protected and preserved in all ages, not withstanding the opposition of all enemies; and of enjoying the communion of saints, the ordinary means of salvation, and offers of grace by Christ to all the members of it in the ministry of the gospel, testifying, that whosoever believes in him shall be saved, and excluding none that will come unto him.

From The Westminster Larger Catechism on the Invisible Church:

Q. 64. What is the invisible church?

A. The invisible church is the whole number of the elect, that have been, are, or shall be gathered into one under Christ the head.

Q. 65. What special benefits do the members of the invisible church enjoy by Christ?

A. The members of the invisible church by Christ enjoy union and communion with him in grace and glory.

In closing, are you only a member of the visible church?

Are you wheat or a tare? There is an earthly roll and heavenly roll. The Jewish people kept extensive genealogies. These were membership records or rolls. They were earthly membership rolls. Likewise, the early church had membership records as the elders kept records on the numbers of new disciples see Acts 2:41, 47; 4:4; 6:1, 7; 16:5. There is nothing wrong with having your name in the earthly roll, in fact, it is essential. However, being in a Jewish genealogy or being numbered in a church membership roll is not the same as being in the book of life.

“Yet now, if thou wilt forgive their sin; and if not, blot me, I pray thee, out of thy book which thou hast written.” (Exodus 32:32)

“Like them, the one who is victorious will be dressed in white. And I will never blot out his name from the book of life, but I will confess his name before My Father and His angels.” (Revelation 3:5) This is the heavenly roll of life.

These two passages point to the heavenly membership roll that your name must be in to have eternal life. Are you listed in this book? Usually, you must first be listed in the church’s earthly membership roll.

Church Membership: Is it Biblical? By Phillip G. Kayser:


The Biblical pattern is to be “numbered” or “added to” the rolls of a local church (Acts 2:41,47; 4:4; 6:1,7; 16:5; 1 Tim. 5:9), to be committed to that local body (1 Cor. 12:12-28; Rom. 12:4,5; Eph. 4:25) and under the rule and oversight of shepherds who know each sheep (Heb. 13:7,17-18; 1 Cor. 16:16; 1 Thessalonians 5:11-14). The Old Testament prophesied that in the New Covenant time “the LORD will record, when He registers the peoples” (Psalm 87:6). When moves or transfers were necessary, the Biblical method was to use a letter of transfer or commendation (Acts 18:27; Rom. 16:1-2; 2 Cor. 3:1; 8:23-24; Philemon; 3 John 6-9,12). Indeed, any inter-church business was conducted by people with reference letters (e.g., 1 Cor. 16:3; 2 Cor. 8:16-24). Also, it is logically impossible to reconcile the doctrine of discipline with a belief that membership is not necessary. How can an excommunicated person be “taken away from among you” (1 Cor. 5:2) if there is no roll from which the person can be removed? It is not sufficient to say that he is physically barred from the church since even unbelievers could be present (1 Cor. 14:23). Furthermore, if people simply circulated from church to church it would be impossible for the eldership to recognize and bar from the building all who were under discipline. Membership rolls are both Biblically and logically necessary for the maintenance of a holy church. (2)


“Church membership was so important that Paul and Silas baptized the Philippian jailer into the membership of Christ’s church at midnight with Paul’s back still bloody from a beating! He did not even wait till morning! Identification with Christ’s church is important; without it, one must be treated ‘as a heathen and publican.’” – Jay Adams

“We must re-grasp the idea of church membership as being the membership of the body of Christ and as the biggest honour which can come man’s way in this world.” – Martyn Lloyd-Jones

“When the Roll Is Called Up Yonder,” where will you be? If you are in the heavenly roll, you will be called up yonder.


1. Calvin, John, Institutes of the Christian Religion, ed. John T. McNeill, trans. Ford Lewis Battles, The Library of Christian Classics, XX-XXI, (Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1960) Book IV, Chapter 1, pp. 1016, 1021-1024.

2. Phillip G. Kayser, Kayser Commentary, kaysercommentary .com

Mr. Kettler has previously published articles in the Chalcedon Report and Contra Mundum. He and his wife Marea attend the Westminster, CO, RPCNA Church. Mr. Kettler is the author of the book defending the Reformed Faith against attacks, titled: The Religion That Started in a Hat. Available at: http://www.thereligionthatstartedinahat.com/

For more study:

* http://www.rebecca-writes.com/theological-terms-in-ao/

** Taken from a devotional given at a RPCNA congregational meeting in 2016

The Kayser Commentary is a great online resource at https://kaysercommentary.com/

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Antinomianism by Jack Kettler

In this study, we will seek to understand antinomianism. As in previous studies, we will look at definitions, scriptures, commentary evidence and confessional support for the glorifying of God in how we live.

“Shew me thy ways, O LORD; teach me thy paths.” (Psalm 25:4)

Definitions from two sources:


A name for several views that have denied that God’s law in Scripture should directly control the Christian’s life; the belief that obedience to God’s moral law is not necessary for the Christian. *


The word antinomianism comes from two Greek words, anti, meaning “against”; and nomos, meaning “law.” Antinomianism means “against the law.” Theologically, antinomianism is the belief that there are no moral laws God expects Christians to obey. Antinomianism takes a biblical teaching to an unbiblical conclusion. The biblical teaching is that Christians are not required to observe the Old Testament Law as a means of salvation. When Jesus Christ died on the cross, He fulfilled the Old Testament Law (Romans 10:4; Galatians 3:23-25; Ephesians 2:15). The unbiblical conclusion is that there is no moral law God expects Christians to obey. **

The Evangelical Dictionary of Theology states, “In fact, it was Luther who actually coined the word antinomianism in his theological struggle with his former student, Johann Agricola.” (1)

Scriptures against Antinomianism:

“The law of the LORD is perfect, converting the soul: the testimony of the LORD is sure, making wise the simple.” (Psalm 19:7)

“Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfil. For verily I say unto you, till heaven and earth pass, one jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass from the law, till all be fulfilled. Whosoever therefore shall break one of these least commandments, and shall teach men so, he shall be called the least in the kingdom of heaven: but whosoever shall do and teach them, the same shall be called great in the kingdom of heaven.” (Matthew 5:17-19)

From Charles Spurgeon’s commentary on Matthew 5:17-19 we read:

Verse 17, “He [Jesus] took care to revise and reform the laws of men; but the law of God he established and confirmed.”

It is noteworthy that Spurgeon says that Jesus came, “established,” and “confirmed.” This was his understanding of “fulfilled.”

Spurgeon continues in verse 18, “Not a syllable is to become effete (exhausted of energy; worn out). Even to the smallest letters, the dot of every ‘I’, and the crossing of every ‘t,’ the law will outlast the creation” Verse 19, Spurgeon says “Our King has not come to abrogate the law, but to confirm and reassert it.” (2)

“What shall we say then? Is the law sin? God forbid. Nay, I had not known sin, but by the law: for I had not known lust, except the law had said, Thou shalt not covet.” (Romans 7:7)

“Wherefore the law is holy, and the commandment holy, and just, and good.” (Romans 7:12)

Know ye not that the unrighteous shall not inherit the kingdom of God? Be not deceived: neither fornicators, nor idolaters, nor adulterers, nor effeminate, nor abusers of themselves with mankind, Nor thieves, nor covetous, nor drunkards, nor revilers, nor extortioners, shall inherit the kingdom of God. And such were some of you: but ye are washed, but ye are sanctified, but ye are justified in the name of the Lord Jesus, and by the Spirit of our God. (1 Corinthians 6:9-11)

“But we know that the law is good, if a man use it lawfully.” (1 Timothy 1:8)

“Whosoever committeth sin transgresseth also the law: for sin is the transgression of the law.” (1 John 3:4)

Antinomianism or LAWLESS from the International Standard Bible Encyclopedia:

lo’-les (anomos): While occurring but once in the King James Version (1 Tim 1:9), is translated in various ways, e.g. “without law” (1 Cor. 9:21); “unlawful” (2 Pet 2:8 the King James Version); “lawless” (1 Tim 1:9); “transgressor” (Mk 15:28; Lk 22:37); “wicked” (Acts 2:23 the King James Version; 2 Thess. 2:8 the King James Version). When Paul claims to be “without law,” he has reference to those things in the ceremonial law, which might well be passed over, and not to the moral law. Paul was by no means an antinomian. Those are “lawless” who break the law of the Decalogue; hence, those who disobey the commandment, “Honor thy father and thy mother,” are lawless (1 Tim 1:9). The civil law is also the law of God. Those breaking it are lawless, hence, called “transgressors.” Those who are unjust in their dealings are also “lawless”; for this reason the hands of Pilate and those who with him unjustly condemned Jesus are called
“wicked (unlawful) hands” (Acts 2:23 the King James Version). The most notable example of lawlessness is the Antichrist, that “wicked (lawless) one” (2 Thess. 2:8). William Evans Bibliography Information (3)

The next essay explains the various manifestations of antinomianism:

Antinomianism: We are Not Set Free to Sin by J. I. Packer:

“Dear children, do not let anyone lead you astray. He who does what is right is righteous, just as he [Christ] is righteous. – 1 JOHN 3:7

Antinomianism, which means being “anti-law,” is a name for several views that have denied that God’s law in Scripture should directly control the Christian’s life.

Dualistic antinomianism appears in the Gnostic heretics against whom Jude and Peter wrote (Jude 4-19; 2 Pet. 2). This view sees salvation as for the soul only, and bodily behavior as irrelevant both to God’s interest and to the soul’s health, so one may behave riotously and it will not matter.

Spirit-centered antinomianism puts such trust in the Holy Spirit’s inward prompting as to deny any need to be taught by the law how to live. Freedom from the law as a way of salvation is assumed to bring with it freedom from the law as a guide to conduct. In the first 150 years of the Reformation era this kind of antinomianism often threatened, and Paul’s insistence that a truly spiritual person acknowledges the authority of God’s Word through Christ’s apostles (1 Cor. 14:37; cf. 7:40) suggests that the Spirit-obsessed Corinthian church was in the grip of the same mind-set.

Christ-centered antinomianism argues that God sees no sin in believers, because they are in Christ, who kept the law for them, and therefore what they actually do makes no difference, provided that they keep believing. But 1 John 1:8–2:1 (expounding 1:7) and 3:4-10 point in a different direction, showing that it is not possible to be in Christ and at the same time to embrace sin as a way of life.

Dispensational antinomianism holds that keeping the moral law is at no stage necessary for Christians, since we live under a dispensation of grace, not of law. Romans 3:31 and 1 Corinthians 6:9-11 clearly show, however, that law-keeping is a continuing obligation for Christians. “I am not free from God’s law but am under Christ’s law,” says Paul (1 Cor. 9:21).

Dialectical antinomianism, as in Barth and Brunner, denies that biblical law is God’s direct command and affirms that the Bible’s imperative statements trigger the Word of the Spirit, which when it comes may or may not correspond exactly to what is written. The inadequacy of the neo-orthodox view of biblical authority, which explains the inspiration of Scripture in terms of the Bible’s instrumentality as a channel for God’s present-day utterances to his people, is evident here.

Situationist antinomianism says that a motive and intention of love is all that God now requires of Christians, and the commands of the Decalogue and other ethical parts of Scripture, for all that they are ascribed to God directly, are mere rules of thumb for loving, rules that love may at any time disregard. But Romans 13:8-10, to which this view appeals, teaches that without love as a motive these specific commands cannot be fulfilled. Once more an unacceptably weak view of Scripture surfaces.

It must be stressed that the moral law, as crystallized in the Decalogue and opened up in the ethical teaching of both Testaments, is one coherent law, given to be a code of practice for God’s people in every age. In addition, repentance means resolving henceforth to seek God’s help in keeping that law. The Spirit is given to empower law-keeping and make us more and more like Christ, the archetypal law-keeper (Matt. 5:17). This law-keeping is in fact the fulfilling of our human nature, and Scripture holds out no hope of salvation for any who, whatever their profession of faith, do not seek to turn from sin to righteousness (1 Cor. 6:9-11; Rev. 21:8).” (4)

Protestant Reformer John Calvin on Antinomianism:

“Some unskillful persons, from not attending to this [the third use of the law], boldly discard the whole law of Moses, and do away with both its Tables, imagining it unchristian to adhere to a doctrine which contains the ministration of death. Far from our thoughts be this profane notion!

Moses has admirably shown that the Law, which can produce nothing but death in sinners, ought to have a better and more excellent effect upon the righteous. When about to die, he thus addressed the people, “Set your hearts unto all the words which I testify among you this day, which ye shall command your children to observe to do, all the words of this law. For it is not a vain thing for you; because it is your life,” (Deut. 32:46, 47.)

If it cannot be denied that it contains a perfect pattern of righteousness, then, unless we ought not to have any proper rule of life, it must be impious to discard it. There are not various rules of life, but one perpetual and inflexible rule; and, therefore, when David describes the righteous as spending their whole lives in meditating on the Law, (Psalm 1:2,) we must not confine to a single age, an employment which is most appropriate to all ages, even to the end of the world.

Nor are we to be deterred or to shun its instructions, because the holiness which it prescribes is stricter than we are able to render, so long as we bear about the prison of the body. It does not now perform toward us the part of a hard taskmaster, who will not be satisfied without full payment; but, in the perfection to which it exhorts us, points out the goal at which, during the whole course of our lives, it is not less our interest than our duty to aim. It is well if we thus press onward. Our whole life is a race, and after we have finished our course, the Lord will enable us to reach that goal to which, at present, we can only aspire in wish.” (5)

The next passage is cited again for its importance and clarification of the law in the life of the Christian.

“But we know that the law is good, if a man use it lawfully.” (1 Timothy 1:8)

Gill’s Exposition of the Entire Bible comments on 1 Timothy 1:8 explain Paul correctly:

“If a man use it lawfully; for if it is used in order to obtain life, righteousness, and salvation by the works of it, or by obedience to it, it is used unlawfully: for the law does not give life, nor can righteousness come by it; nor are, or can men be saved by the works of it; to use the law for such purposes, is to abuse it, as the false teachers did, and make that which is good in itself, and in its proper use, to do what is evil; namely, to obscure and frustrate the grace of God, and make null and void the sufferings and death of Christ. A lawful use of the law is to obey it, as in the hands of Christ, the King of saints, and lawgiver in his church, from a principle of love to him, in the exercise of faith on him, without any mercenary selfish views, without trusting to, or depending on, what is done in obedience to it, but with a view to the glory of God, to testify our subjection to Christ, and our gratitude to him for favours received from him.” (6)

Contemporary theologian, Sinclair Ferguson’s assessment is perceptive as a conclusion to this study:

“Within the matrix of legalism at root is the manifestation of a restricted heart disposition toward God, viewing him through a lens of negative law that obscures the broader context of the Father’s character of holy love. This is a fatal sickness. Paradoxically, it is this same view of God, and the separation of his person from his law, that also lies at the root of antinomianism. The bottom line in both of these -isms is identical. That is why the gospel remedy of them is one and the same.” (7)

Westminster Shorter Catechism Question 89 is important:

Q: How is the word made effectual to salvation?

A: The Spirit of God maketh the reading, but especially the preaching of the word an effectual means of convincing and converting sinners, 1 and of building, them up in holiness and comfort through faith unto salvation. 2

1. Psalm 19:7. The law of the Lord is perfect, converting the soul: the testimony of the Lord is sure, making wise the simple.

Psalm 119:130. The entrance of thy words giveth light; it giveth understanding unto the simple.

Hebrews 4:12. For the word of God is quick, and powerful, and sharper than any two edged sword, piercing even to the dividing asunder of soul and spirit, and of the joints and marrow, and is a discerner of the thoughts and intents of the heart.

2. 1 Thessalonians 1:6. And ye became followers of us, and of the Lord, having received the word in much affliction, with joy of the Holy Ghost.

Romans 1:16. For I am not ashamed of the gospel of Christ: for it is the power of God unto salvation to every one that believeth; to the Jew first, and also to the Greek.

Romans 16:25. Now to him that is of power to stablish you according to my gospel, and the preaching of Jesus Christ, according to the revelation of the mystery, which was kept secret since the world began.

Acts 20:32. And now, brethren, I commend you to God, and to the word of his grace, which is able to build you up, and to give you an inheritance among all them which are sanctified.

“Study to shew thyself approved unto God, a workman that needeth not to be ashamed, rightly dividing the word of truth.” (2 Timothy 2:15)


1. Walter A. Elwell, Editor, The Evangelical Dictionary of Theology, (Grand Rapids, Michigan, Baker Book House), p.58.

2. Charles Spurgeon, The Gospel of the Kingdom, Commentary on Matthew, (Grand Rapids, Michigan, Revell, 1987 reprinted 1995), p. 52-53.

3. James Orr, James, M.A., D.D. General Editor, International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, Definition for “LAWLESS,” (Grand Rapids, Michigan, Eerdmans, 1915), p.1859.

4. J.I. Packer, Concise Theology, (Wheaton, Illinois, Tyndale, 1993), pp. 178-180.

5. John Calvin and Henry Beveridge, Institutes of the Christian Religion, vol. 1 (Edinburgh: The Calvin Translation Society, 1845), p. 419–420.

6. John Gill, Exposition of the Old and New Testaments, 1 Timothy, 9 Volumes, (Grace Works, Multi-Media Labs), 2011, p. 12.

7. Sinclair Ferguson, The Whole Christ: Legalism, Antinomianism, and Gospel Assurance―Why the Marrow Controversy Still Matters, (Wheaton, Illinois, Crossway, 2016), p. 85.

Mr. Kettler has previously published articles in the Chalcedon Report and Contra Mundum. He and his wife Marea attend the Westminster, CO, RPCNA Church. Mr. Kettler is the author of the book defending the Reformed Faith against attacks, titled: The Religion That Started in a Hat. Available at: www.TheReligionThatStartedInAHat.com


For more study:

* http://www.rebecca-writes.com/theological-terms-in-ao/

** https://www.gotquestions.org/

Antidote to the Sixth Session of the Council of Trent on the Doctrine of Justification (1547)

By John Calvin https://www.the-highway.com/antidote_Calvin.html

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Transgenderism by Jack Kettler

In this study, we will look at transgenderism. We hear the term in the media; see characters in movies and the children in fed gov schools are being indoctrinated into its acceptance. Restrooms in many places are now so-called gender neutral. Going into a restroom is now left up to a person’s personal assessment of what their sex is. This new standard of individual subjective assessment of sexual status is problematic.

Past societal norms are being bludgeoned apart by the new social justice warriors. States, fed gov agencies are in full swing behind eradicating the biblical norms and the past moral consensus. The only standard used is that of the individual or who can scream the loudest on a college campus. This standard of subjective individualism as the interpretive norm is full-blown autonomous humanism.

The Bible God’s revelation to man is the only objective standard for determining right and wrong.

Hence, as in previous studies, we will look at definitions, scriptures, lexical data, and commentary evidence and confessional support for the glorifying of God in how we live.


Transsexualism, also known as transgenderism, Gender Identity Disorder (GID), or gender dysphoria, is a feeling that your biological/genetic/physiological gender does not match the gender you identify with and/or perceive yourself to be. Transsexuals/transgenders often describe themselves as feeling “trapped” in a body that does not match their true gender. They often practice transvestism/transvestitism and may also seek hormone therapy and/or gender reassignment surgery to bring their bodies into conformity with their perceived gender. *

Is there a societal event that has triggered the transgender movement? In the modern era, it may very well be that feminism is partially the cause of gender confusion. Feminism would be a cause because of feminism’s idea of radical equality and its corollary that there is no male supremacy by a man over a woman. This assertion is speculative; nevertheless, ideas have consequences, and there can be a causal connection, for example, legalized abortion and the progression to calls for infanticide.

Transgenderism a biblical evaluation:

Transgenderism must be dealt with primarily as an issue of biblical conformity. Besides the sinful nature, one should not rule out factors such as fed gov school indoctrination, media propaganda, side effects of pharmaceutical drugs, imbalanced diets. In addition, sexual molestation as a young person by an adult and hormone therapies as possible contributing factors to gender confusion. These possible extenuating factors in no way lessens the requirement of biblical fidelity on the part of individuals. It is possible that someone can struggle with gender confusion without becoming transsexual.

The Bible does not directly mention the word transgenderism. The passage referred to most often is Deuteronomy 22:5 in discussions of transgenderism. This passage is undoubtedly relevant to the issue of transgenderism. 1 Corinthians 6:9 is also uniquely important passage as will be seen. In the additional biblical passages consulted in this study, it is evident that men and women are distinguished clearly in Scripture, and this fact most certainly has to bear on the subject.

What do the Scriptures say?

This distinction between men and women is seen right from the beginning:

“So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them.” (Genesis 1:27)

As said, the passage most often referred to is:

“The woman shall not wear that which pertaineth unto a man; neither shall a man put on a woman’s garment: for all that do so are an abomination unto the LORD thy God.” (Deuteronomy 22:5)

From the Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Bible Commentary on this section of Scripture:

“De 22:5-12. The Sex to Be Distinguished by Apparel.

5. The woman shall not wear that which pertaineth unto a man, neither shall a man put on a woman’s garment—Though disguises were assumed at certain times in heathen temples, it is probable that a reference was made to unbecoming levities practiced in common life. They were properly forbidden; for the adoption of the habiliments of the one sex by the other is an outrage on decency, obliterates the distinctions of nature by fostering softness and effeminacy in the man, impudence and boldness in the woman as well as levity and hypocrisy in both; and, in short, it opens the door to an influx of so many evils that all who wear the dress of another sex are pronounced ‘an abomination unto the Lord.’” (1)

In the Gospel of Mark, we see confirmation of the creational norm:

“But from the beginning of the creation, God made them male and female.” (Mark 10:6)

Apostolic directives to husbands and wives add further confirmation:

“Wives, submit yourselves unto your own husbands, as unto the Lord. For the husband is the head of the wife, even as Christ is the head of the church: and he is the savior of the body. Therefore as the church is subject unto Christ, so let the wives be to their own husbands in everything.” (Ephesians 5:22–24)

“Likewise, ye wives, be in subjection to your own husbands; that, if any obey not the word, they also may without the word be won by the conversation of the wives.” (1 Pet 3:1)

A Pauline message to churches concerning apostolic instructions that also distinguish the sexes:

“Let your women keep silence in the churches: for it is not permitted unto them to speak; but they are commanded to be under obedience as also saith the law. And if they will learn anything, let them ask their husbands at home: for it is a shame for women to speak in the church.” (1 Corinthians 14:34, 35)

“A bishop then must be blameless, the husband of one wife, vigilant, sober, of good behaviour, given to hospitality, apt to teach.” “Let the deacons be the husbands of one wife, ruling their children and their own houses well.” (1 Timothy 3:2, 12)

“That the aged men be sober, grave, temperate, sound in faith, in charity, in patience. The aged women likewise, that they be in behaviour as becometh holiness, not false accusers, not given to much wine, teachers of good things; That they may teach the young women to be sober, to love their husbands, to love their children, To be discreet, chaste, keepers at home, good, obedient to their own husbands, that the word of God be not blasphemed. Young men likewise exhort to be sober minded.” (Titus 2:2–6)

Paul continues, and exhorts Timothy to esteem and reassure older men as fathers, younger men as brothers, older women as mothers, and younger women as sisters:

“Rebuke not an elder, but intreat him as a father; and the younger men as brethren; the elder women as mothers; the younger as sisters, with all purity.” (1 Timothy 5:1–2).

The next two passages assume that we can distinguish men and women:

“Likewise, ye wives, be in subjection to your own husbands.” (1 Peter 3:1).

“Let the woman learn in silence with all subjection. But I suffer not a woman to teach, nor to usurp authority over the man, but to be in silence.” (1 Timothy 2:11, 12)

Men and women, distinguished in worship:

“Every man praying or prophesying, having his head covered, dishonoureth his head. But every woman that prayeth or prophesieth with her head uncovered dishonoureth her head: for that is even all one as if she were shaven. For if the woman be not covered, let her also be shorn: but if it be a shame for a woman to be shorn or shaven, let her be covered. For a man indeed ought not to cover his head, forasmuch as he is the image and glory of God: but the woman is the glory of the man. For the man is not of the woman: but the woman of the man. Neither was the man created for the woman; but the woman for the man. For this cause ought the woman to have power on her head because of the angels. Nevertheless neither is the man without the woman, neither the woman without the man, in the Lord. For as the woman is of the man, even so is the man also by the woman, but all things of God. Judge in yourselves: is it comely that a woman pray unto God uncovered?” (1 Corinthians 11:4-13)


Thus far, it is clear that the Scriptures give no support for transgenderism as an accepted Christian lifestyle. God created both men and women; they have different roles in marriage and the church.

A conclusion thus far:

“It is significant that Genesis 1:26–28 appoints the binary categories male and female using the anatomical (rather than social) terms of gender: “male (zakar) and female (neqebah) he created them” (v. 27). We believe this is done because it is the anatomical sex of the individual, which indicates his or her gender calling. The social role of manhood (Heb., ’ish) or womanhood (Heb., ’ishah) is determined by the person’s anatomical sex.” (2)

The warnings of judgment in Scripture:

“Wherefore God also gave them up to uncleanness through the lusts of their own hearts, to dishonour their own bodies between themselves: Who changed the truth of God into a lie, and worshipped and served the creature more than the Creator, who is blessed forever. Amen. For this cause God gave them up unto vile affections: for even their women did change the natural use into that which is against nature: And likewise also the men, leaving the natural use of the woman, burned in their lust one toward another; men with men working that which is unseemly, and receiving in themselves that recompense of their error which was meet.” (Romans 1:24-27)

As mentioned at the start, 1 Corinthians 6:9 is particularly relevant:

“Know ye not that the unrighteous shall not inherit the kingdom of God? Be not deceived: neither fornicators, nor idolaters, nor adulterers, nor effeminate, nor abusers of themselves with mankind.” (1 Corinthians 6:9)

Regarding the word effeminate:

Vine’s Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words:

1 Strong’s Number: g3120 Greek: malakos

Effeminate: “soft, soft to the touch” (Lat., mollis, Eng., “mollify,” “emollient,” etc.), is used

(a) of raiment, Mat 11:8 (twice); Luke 7:25;

(b) metaphorically, in a bad sense, 1Cr 6:9, “effeminate,” not simply of a male who practices forms of lewdness, but persons in general, who are guilty of addiction to sins of the flesh, voluptuous. (3)

Strong’s Concordance 3120 malakos:

malakos: soft, effeminate

Original Word: μαλακός, ή, όν

Part of Speech: Adjective

Transliteration: malakos

Phonetic Spelling: (mal-ak-os’)

Short Definition: soft, effeminate

Definition: (a) soft, (b) of persons: soft, delicate, effeminate.

Some Bible translations connect the word effeminate with homosexuality. For example:

“Or do you not know that the unrighteous will not inherit the kingdom of God? Do not be deceived: neither the sexually immoral, nor idolaters, nor adulterers, nor men who practice homosexuality.” (1 Corinthians 6:9 ESV)

“Do you not know that the wicked will not inherit the kingdom of God? Do not be deceived: Neither the sexually immoral, nor idolaters, nor adulterers, nor men who submit to or perform homosexual acts.” (1 Corinthians 6:9 Berean Study Bible)


For those identifying as transgender, the Bible categorizes it under the general heading of homosexuality. Two points, first, this passage from 1 Corinthians is listed under the heading of a biblical warning. Second, all must heed the warning to flee from sexual immorality.

There is hope for those struggling with these types of temptations as seen in Paul’s writing in the past tense wording used in the next passage.

“And such were some of you: but ye are washed, but ye are sanctified, but ye are justified in the name of the Lord Jesus, and by the Spirit of our God.” (1 Corinthians 6:11)

For those struggling with transgenderism, there is hope. You are not alone. Everyone is to flee from sexual sins.

“Flee from sexual immorality (porneia). Every other sin a person commits is outside the body, but the sexually immoral person sins against his own body.” (1 Corinthians 6:18ESV)

Strong’s Concordance on fornication, sexual immorality:

porneia: fornication 4202

Original Word: πορνεία, ας, ἡ

Part of Speech: Noun, Feminine

Transliteration: porneia

Phonetic Spelling: (por-ni’-ah)

Short Definition: fornication, idolatry

Definition: fornication, whoredom, met: idolatry.

The word porneia is broader than fornication, and includes homosexuality, adultery, transgenderism and other sexual sins. The transgender individual is to “flee from sexual immorality” just like the apostle calls everyone. The Scriptures give no support for anyone living in any type of sexual immorality.

As seen from the Bible passages covered in this study, men and women are differentiated, and God has ordained these differences. Therefore, someone struggling with gender confusion needs to come to terms with created personhood and God’s purposes.

Confessional support for the above exposition.

The Westminster Larger Catechism Question 139:

Question139. What are the sins forbidden in the seventh commandment?

Answer. The sins forbidden in the seventh commandment, besides the neglect of the duties required,1 are, adultery, fornication,2 rape, incest,3 sodomy, and all unnatural lusts;4 all unclean imaginations, thoughts, purposes, and affections;5 all corrupt or filthy communications, or listening thereunto;6 wanton looks,7 impudent or light behaviour, immodest apparel;8 prohibiting of lawful,9 and dispensing with unlawful marriages;10 allowing, tolerating, keeping of stews, and resorting to them;11 entangling vows of single life,12 undue delay of marriage,13 having more wives or husbands than one at the same time;14 unjust divorce,15 or desertion;16 idleness, gluttony, drunkenness,17 unchaste company;18 lascivious songs, books, pictures, dancings, stage plays;19 and all other provocations to, or acts of uncleanness, either in ourselves or others.20

Scriptural proofs:

1 Proverbs 5:7: And now, O sons, listen to me, and do not depart from the words of my mouth.

2 Hebrews 13:4: Let marriage be held in honor among all, and let the marriage bed be undefiled, for God will judge the sexually immoral and adulterous. Galatians 5:19: Now the works of the flesh are evident: sexual immorality, impurity, sensuality.

3 2 Samuel 13:14: But he would not listen to her, and being stronger than she, he violated her and lay with her. 1 Corinthians 5:1: It is actually reported that there is sexual immorality among you, and of a kind that is not tolerated even among pagans, for a man has his father’s wife.

4 Romans 1:24, 26-27: Therefore God gave them up in the lusts of their hearts to impurity, to the dishonoring of their bodies among themselves. … For this reason God gave them up to dishonorable passions. For their women exchanged natural relations for those that are contrary to nature; and the men likewise gave up natural relations with women and were consumed with passion for one another, men committing shameless acts with men and receiving in themselves the due penalty for their error. Leviticus 20:15-16: If a man lies with an animal, he shall surely be put to death, and you shall kill the animal. If a woman approaches any animal and lies with it, you shall kill the woman and the animal; they shall surely be put to death; their blood is upon them.

5 Matthew 5:28: But I say to you that everyone who looks at a woman with lustful intent has already committed adultery with her in his heart. Matthew 15:19: For out of the heart come evil thoughts, murder, adultery, sexual immorality, theft, false witness, slander. Colossians 3:5: Put to death therefore what is earthly in you: sexual immorality, impurity, passion, evil desire, and covetousness, which is idolatry.

6 Ephesians 5:3-4: But sexual immorality and all impurity or covetousness must not even be named among you, as is proper among saints. Let there be no filthiness nor foolish talk nor crude joking, which are out of place, but instead let there be thanksgiving. Proverbs 7:5, 21-22: To keep you from the forbidden woman, from the adulteress with her smooth words. … With much seductive speech she persuades him; with her smooth talk she compels him. All at once he follows her, as an ox goes to the slaughter, or as a stag is caught fast.

7 Isaiah 3:16: The LORD said: Because the daughters of Zion are haughty and walk with outstretched necks, glancing wantonly with their eyes, mincing along as they go, tinkling with their feet. 2 Peter 2:14: They have eyes full of adultery, insatiable for sin. They entice unsteady souls. They have hearts trained in greed. Accursed children!

8 Proverbs 7:10, 13: And behold, the woman meets him, dressed as a prostitute, wily of heart. … She seizes him and kisses him, and with bold face she says to him.

9 1 Timothy 4:3: Who forbid marriage and require abstinence from foods that God created to be received with thanksgiving by those who believe and know the truth.

10 Leviticus 18:1-21: Click to read passage. Mark 6:18: For John had been saying to Herod, “It is not lawful for you to have your brother’s wife. Malachi 2:11-12: Judah has been faithless, and abomination has been committed in Israel and in Jerusalem. For Judah has profaned the sanctuary of the LORD, which he loves, and has married the daughter of a foreign god. May the LORD cut off from the tents of Jacob any descendant of the man who does this, who brings an offering to the LORD of hosts!

11 1 Kings 15:12: He put away the male cult prostitutes out of the land and removed all the idols that his fathers had made. 2 Kings 23:7: And he broke down the houses of the male cult prostitutes who were in the house of the LORD, where the women wove hangings for the Asherah. Deuteronomy 23:17-18: None of the daughters of Israel shall be a cult prostitute, and none of the sons of Israel shall be a cult prostitute. You shall not bring the fee of a prostitute or the wages of a dog into the house of the LORD your God in payment for any vow, for both of these are an abomination to the LORD your God. Leviticus 19:29: Do not profane your daughter by making her a prostitute, lest the land fall into prostitution and the land become full of depravity. Jeremiah 5:7: How can I pardon you? Your children have forsaken me and have sworn by those who are no gods. When I fed them to the full, they committed adultery and trooped to the houses of whores. Proverbs 7:24-27: And now, O sons, listen to me, and be attentive to the words of my mouth. Let not your heart turn aside to her ways; do not stray into her paths, for many a victim has she laid low, and all her slain are a mighty throng. Her house is the way to Sheol, going down to the chambers of death.

12 Matthew 19:10-11: The disciples said to him, “If such is the case of a man with his wife, it is better not to marry.” But he said to them, “Not everyone can receive this saying, but only those to whom it is given.”

13 1 Corinthians 7:7-9: I wish that all were as I myself am. But each has his own gift from God, one of one kind and one of another. To the unmarried and the widows I say that it is good for them to remain single as I am. But if they cannot exercise self-control, they should marry. For it is better to marry than to burn with passion. Genesis 38:26: Then Judah identified them and said, “She is more righteous than I, since I did not give her to my son Shelah.” And he did not know her again.

14 Malachi 2:14-15: But you say, “Why does he not?” Because the LORD was witness between you and the wife of your youth, to whom you have been faithless, though she is your companion and your wife by covenant. Did he not make them one, with a portion of the Spirit in their union? And what was the one God seeking? Godly offspring. So guard yourselves in your spirit, and let none of you be faithless to the wife of your youth. Matthew 19:5: And said, “Therefore a man shall leave his father and his mother and hold fast to his wife, and the two shall become one flesh”?

15 Malachi 2:16: “For the man who does not love his wife but divorces her, says the LORD, the God of Israel, covers his garment with violence, says the LORD of hosts. So guard yourselves in your spirit, and do not be faithless.” Matthew 5:32: But I say to you that everyone who divorces his wife, except on the ground of sexual immorality, makes her commit adultery, and whoever marries a divorced woman commits adultery.

16 1 Corinthians 7:12-13: To the rest I say (I, not the Lord) that if any brother has a wife who is an unbeliever, and she consents to live with him, he should not divorce her. If any woman has a husband who is an unbeliever, and he consents to live with her, she should not divorce him.

17 Ezekiel 16:49: Behold, this was the guilt of your sister Sodom: she and her daughters had pride, excess of food, and prosperous ease, but did not aid the poor and needy. Proverbs 23:30-33: Those who tarry long over wine; those who go to try mixed wine. Do not look at wine when it is red, when it sparkles in the cup and goes down smoothly. In the end it bites like a serpent and stings like an adder. Your eyes will see strange things, and your heart utter perverse things.

18 Genesis 39:19: As soon as his master heard the words that his wife spoke to him, “This is the way your servant treated me,” his anger was kindled. Proverbs 5:8: Keep your way far from her, and do not go near the door of her house.

19 Ephesians 5:4: Let there be no filthiness nor foolish talk nor crude joking, which are out of place, but instead let there be thanksgiving. Ezekiel 23:14-16: But she carried her whoring further. She saw men portrayed on the wall, the images of the Chaldeans portrayed in vermilion, wearing belts on their waists, with flowing turbans on their heads, all of them having the appearance of officers, a likeness of Babylonians whose native land was Chaldea. When she saw them, she lusted after them and sent messengers to them in Chaldea. Isaiah 23:15-17: In that day Tyre will be forgotten for seventy years, like the days of one king. At the end of seventy years, it will happen to Tyre as in the song of the prostitute: “Take a harp; go about the city, O forgotten prostitute! Make sweet melody; sing many songs, that you may be remembered.” At the end of seventy years, the LORD will visit Tyre, and she will return to her wages and will prostitute herself with all the kingdoms of the world on the face of the earth. Isaiah 3:16: The LORD said: Because the daughters of Zion are haughty and walk with outstretched necks, glancing wantonly with their eyes, mincing along as they go, tinkling with their feet. Mark 6:22: For when Herodias’s daughter came in and danced, she pleased Herod and his guests. And the king said to the girl, “Ask me for whatever you wish, and I will give it to you.” 1 Peter 4:3: For the time that is past suffices for doing what the Gentiles want to do, living in sensuality, passions, drunkenness, orgies, drinking parties, and lawless idolatry.

20 2 Kings 9:30: When Jehu came to Jezreel, Jezebel heard of it. And she painted her eyes and adorned her head and looked out of the window. Jeremiah 4:30: And you, O desolate one, what do you mean that you dress in scarlet, that you adorn yourself with ornaments of gold, that you enlarge your eyes with paint? In vain you beautify yourself. Your lovers despise you; they seek your life. Ezekiel 23:40: They even sent for men to come from afar, to whom a messenger was sent; and behold, they came. For them you bathed yourself, painted your eyes, and adorned yourself with ornaments.

Never forget:

“Study to shew thyself approved unto God, a workman that needeth not to be ashamed, rightly dividing the word of truth.” (2 Timothy 2:15)


1. Jamieson, Fausset and Brown, Commentary on the Whole Bible, (Grand Rapids, Michigan, Zondervan, 1977) p. 157.

2. North America, Synod of the Reformed Presbyterian Church. Gender as Calling: The Gospel & Gender Identity (Kindle Locations 388-392). Crown & Covenant Publications. Page Location 385 Kindle Edition.

3. W. E. Vine, An Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words, (Iowa Falls, Iowa, Riverside Book and Bible House), p. 349.

Mr. Kettler has previously published articles in the Chalcedon Report and Contra Mundum. He and his wife Marea attend the Westminster, CO, RPCNA Church. Mr. Kettler is the author of the book defending the Reformed Faith against attacks, titled: The Religion That Started in a Hat. Available at: www.TheReligionThatStartedInAHat.com

For more study:

* https://www.gotquestions.org/

Many articles on the topic of transgenderism and political ramifications at


For one of the best experts on sexual sins and those struggling with sexual sins, see

Rosaria Butterfield at https://rosariabutterfield.com/

Gender as Calling: The Gospel & Gender Identity

This booklet offers an introduction to the development of the transgender movement and its terminology, a critique of the philosophies that undergird it, and a loving, biblical response. Purchase at https://www.crownandcovenant.com/product_p/ds536.htm also available at Amazon in the Kindle format.

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